عنوان مقاله [English]
Attention Due to the increasing attention to tourism and becoming competitive in the tourism market around the world, tourism destinations are increasingly competing with attracting tourists. Geotourism is a new, dynamic and evolving form of tourism that is mainly influenced by the inherent contexts and attractions of disciplines such as geomorphology, geology, mineralogy, fossilology, caving and other related sciences. It is also influenced by the technical exploration of cultural and historical sites associated with mining activities, the discovery of specific museums in a region, or historical monuments. This study evaluates the geotourism potential and analyzes the competitiveness of the geotouristic areas of the case study (Germi, Parsabad, Meshgin shahr). There are various factors involved in the development of tourism, the absence of some of which poses many challenges to the development of tourism. Accordingly, identifying the factors affecting tourism development is a basic precondition for national planning and development and will play an important role in tourism development in the study areas. The reason for choosing these areas is due to having all three areas with almost similar characteristics of geotouristic attractions and on the other hand having the variables of the models of this research in these areas. According to the fields related to geotourism, it is necessary to define and identify indicators and factors assessing the competitiveness of geotourism in each region so that based on these indicators, the attractiveness and competitiveness of the region can not only be determined but can be compared with other regions and low value. To take on. . Therefore, the first task in this field will be to identify the indicators and determinants of competitiveness of the evaluated areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the geotourism potential and analyze the competitiveness of geotouristic regions of Ardabil province (Case study: Hir, Khalkhal, Sarein).
The study areas are located in Ardabil province. Ardabil province in the northwest of the Iranian plateau, with more than 18 thousand and 50 square kilometers, constitutes about 1% of the country's area. This province is bordered by Aras River, Moghan Plain and Balharud from the north to the Republic of Azerbaijan, from the east to Talesh and Baghro mountains in Gilan province, from the south to interconnected mountains, valleys and plains of Zanjan province and from the west to East Azerbaijan province. it's limited. In this research, 1: 50,000 topographic maps, 1: 100,000 geological maps, as well as GIS software have been used to identify the study areas. Field study This research was conducted as a field and a questionnaire was completed in the spring of 1401. During the field study, in addition to providing images of the geotourist attractions of the study areas, questionnaires were also completed from travelers and tourism experts based on the model items used. The selection of the study areas is due to the fact that, firstly, the selected areas have geotouristic features and are also among the key areas in Ardabil province. The study method is descriptive, analytical, comparative and the model for assessing the geotourism potential of the regions is Hudzik model and Pavolova model for analyzing the competitiveness of geotouristic regions. In the Hadzik model, both the opinion of travelers visiting the area and the opinion of experts in evaluating the geotourism potential are taken into account. Data collection tools are also based on a questionnaire and the number of experts and tourists has been determined using a simple random sampling method and Cochran's formula. The statistical population in this study is travelers and experts who have traveled to the study areas of geotourism, which for each study area was collected using a questionnaire of 70 tourists and 25 experts. A total of 285 questionnaires were completed for the three study areas. Also, to estimate the normality of the data, the data distribution fit was tested using the Smirnov-Nekouei Kolmograph test and was confirmed with a significance (sig) of 0.05. In this research, first, the analysis of the geotourism potential of the mentioned areas is evaluated using the Hadzic model, and in the next stage, the competitiveness of the studied areas is evaluated using the model of Pavolova et al.
A: The results of evaluating the scientific value of geotourism in the regions according to experts show that among the sub-indicators of warm scientific value in terms of, the indicator index of geomorphological processes with a value of 4.75 has the highest score. And in terms of index, rarity at the national level with a value of 1.35 has the lowest score. In terms of visitors, Garmi region has the highest score in terms of diversity index in geomorphological forms with a value of 0.80 compared to other indicators and also in terms of educational benefits with a score of 0.39 with the lowest score. The results of experts' evaluation of Pars Abad scientific sub-indices show that diversity in geomorphological forms with a value of 4.60 and sub-indices of rarity at the national level with a value of 1.44 has the lowest score. According to Pars Abad visitors, in terms of diversity of geomorphological forms with a score of 0.70, it has the highest score compared to other indicators and also in terms of scientific index for educational conditions with a score of 0.21 has the lowest value. The results of the evaluation of scientific geotourist values by the experts of Meshkinshahr region show that it has obtained the highest score in terms of integrity with a value of 4.85 and has obtained the lowest score with the sub-indicators of educational benefits with a value of 2.11. Visitors' opinion in Meshkinshahr region has the highest score in terms of Gonaconi sub-index of geomorphological processes with a value of 0.90 and the lowest rank in terms of scientific knowledge sub-index with a value of 0.26. The results of experts' evaluation of the Garmi area surplus value sub-indices show that the access sub-index with the value of 4.95 has the highest score. And interpretive value sub-indices with a value of 1.32 are in low grades. According to the visitors of this region, the index has the possibility of organizing with a rate of 0.90 has the highest score compared to other indicators and in terms of interpretive value with a value of 0.27 has obtained the lowest score. Abad shows that the sub-index of natural elements and cultural heritage with a value of 3.72 has the highest score and the interpretive value with a value of 1.29 has the lowest score. According to the visitors in Pars Abad region, being below the destination index with the value of 0.95 has the highest rank and the degree of relationship with development with the value of 0.13 has the lowest score. The results of experts' evaluation of Meshkinshahr geotourism scientific indicators show that the surplus scientific sub-index has the highest score in terms of access with a value of 4.96 compared to other indicators. And interpretive value sub-indices with the value of 2.63 has the lowest score. Also, in terms of visitors, the access index with a score of 0.97 has the highest rank compared to other indicators and the sub-index has the lowest score with some value of some works of art with a value of 0.46 (Table 5).
B: According to the results obtained from field studies and completing the questionnaire, one of the positive factors of competitiveness of geotouristic areas can be the existence of hot springs and medical facilities in the Garmi region with a value of 7.44 and also in Meshkinshahr region with a natural value of 7.44. They have gained competitiveness compared to other factors. In the next ranks of Parsabad geotouristic region, it has the highest level of competitiveness in terms of the existence of several caves with a value of 6.97. Also, Parsabad and Meshkinshahr areas with (0) have the lowest level of competitiveness in terms of spa factor and medical facilities, which indicates the lack of spa in these geotourist areas. The warm region in terms of the factor of fossil sites with a value of 0.46 indicates that this region is not in a good condition in terms of fossils. The highest heat potential in competition with other geotourist areas is in spa factors and medical facilities and natural value, which has provided the best conditions in this geotouristic area to compete with other tourist areas. Parsabad region in terms of positive competitiveness factors such as the existence of numerous caves and pristine and untouched nature has more points to compete with other geotourist areas in Ardabil province. The results show the competitiveness of Meshkinshahr geotouristic region in general in terms of natural value and hydrological sites has the highest score for competitiveness with Garmi and Parsabad geotourist regions, which indicates a tourist and natural region in Ardabil province (Table 6) Conclusion: In this research, the geotourism potential and competitiveness of the studied areas (Garmi,