عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigation of environmental gases and suspended particles in the environment around Sepahan Cement factory
One of the most important concerns that arises with the increasing development of industries and factories in today's societies is the issue of environmental pollution. In developed western countries, serious efforts have been made to develop technology to reduce pollutants caused by industrial processes.
In developing countries, however, efforts to advance modern industries and technologies as fast as possible have prevented them from addressing environmental issues. One of the important causes of pollution is the process of cement production in factories. According to the obtained statistics, in our country, unfortunately, the environmental effects of cement factories have become a controversial and serious issue.
Although the country's environmental organization has considered the permit limit for the polluted emitted materials, which is considered as one of the most important and necessary industries in most industrial areas of the world, but in any case, by creating appropriate solutions in the cement industry, the amount of these materials can be Reduced as much as possible and prevent serious human and herbal consequences. Harmful gases and hazardous particles that are released daily by industrial units in the environment are one of the problems of the environment nowadays. Today, industrial activities have caused many changes in the environment, including air pollution with particulate matter and harmful gases. The cement industry, meanwhile, plays an important role in upsetting the balance of natural life and creating environmental anomalies. Pollutants from cement factories mainly include emitted dust and toxic gases. Dust from cement factory smoke disrupts metabolic activity in plants and can affect plant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pollution status of Sepahan Cement Industrial Unit in terms of suspended particles and environmental gases. In this study, it was not possible to access the space or area of the study industry (Sepahan Cement). Also, with the performed investigations, the dust particles from the cement were not observed so much that it could be visually accumulated so that it could be sampled. Therefore, the status of suspended particles and ambient gases in different parts of Dizicheh city were measured and checked using portable devices. Then, the data were analyzed using Excel software and also using the standard table of clean air presented in Iran approved in 2016. In this standard, the average concentration per hour was used for carbon monoxide, the average annual concentration for ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and the average 24-hour concentration for suspended particles and sulfur dioxide. For other pollutants, a similar method was used according to the presented standard. Then, by comparing the concentrations of pollutants in Sepahan Cement Factory with the clean air standard approved in 2016, the status of gases and suspended particles in the air around the factory was investigated. It should be mentioned that this research is a descriptive-sectional method with the purpose of checking the concentrations of (SO2), (NO2), (O3) and (CO) gases and suspended particles: (PM10) and (PM2.5) in the surrounding air of 9 stations of Sepahan Isfahan Cement Factory has been done.
According to the comparison of the measured values with the allowed limits, it was determined that NO2 gas and SO2 gas in 67% of the studied stations are beyond the permit limit and are considered pollutants. Particles less than 2.5 microns in all stations are less than the allowed limit and are not polluting, but suspended particles less than 10 micron in all stations are more than the permit limits and are considered as environmental pollutants. In the data checking in relation to the permit limits, the parameters beyond the permit limit have been specified and their concentration in relation to the allowable limit was calculated. According to the results, NO2 gas showed 1.7 to 2.6 times the permit limit and SO2 gas showed 1.4 to 3.2 times the permit limit in the studied stations. Particles less than 2.5 microns were less than the permit 24-hour and 10-year limits and showed no pollution. In contrast, particles larger than 10 microns were more than the permit limits compared to the 24-hour limit (1.12 to 3.88 times) and 20 years (2.4 to 4.85 times) and showed a pollution. Among the measured suspended particles at 9 stations around the cement factory , 10% of the suspended particles were related to particles smaller than 2.5 microns and 90% of the suspended particles were related to particles smaller than 10 microns. Among the ambient gases, the highest amount with 80% was related to carbon monoxide (CO) and the lowest amount (4%) of the ambient gases of the cement factory was related to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). According to the average results obtained from the measurement of ambient gases and suspended particles and also compare to the standard of clean air in Iran approved in 2016, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) was above the standard value While the CO level was much lower than the standard level. Suspended particles below 2.5 microns were below the permit limit in all stations. But suspended particles below 10 microns were higher than allowed in all stations. The results showed that in most stations around the factory, suspended particles smaller than 10 microns and sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were higher than the permit limits, which according to these results and the effect of these particles and gases with high concentration, surely the residents around the factory will also be harmed and face negative effects. In general, the concentration of (SO2) and (NO2) gases is higher than the standard of clean air in Iran and the high concentration of these gases can have many negative effects on residents and plants around this factory. Therefore, in order to reduce the negative effects of these gases on people living in the area and plants, Sepahan Cement Factory must provide the conditions to reduce these gases and particles in the environment by creating and installing the necessary equipment.
Keywords: Sepahan Cement factory, Suspended Particle, Nitrogen dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide.