عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, the resilience approach is used to manage crises caused by risks and achieve sustainable development. This approach has four dimensions, one of the most important of which is the institutional-organizational dimension. This dimension of resilience emphasizes the role of authorities in preventing disaster. The aim of the present study is to assess the institutional-organizational resilience of Ardabil city against environmental hazards from the citizens' point of view. The present research method is descriptive-analytical in nature and applied in terms of purpose. In order to collect data, the field sampling method (completing a questionnaire) has been used and in this regard, a number of thousands of questionnaires, proportional to the size and population of neighborhoods and have been completed in a randomly classified method. In the present research process, in order to determine the weight of the 6 main research indicators, the entropy method was used from the opinions of 10 experts (by snowball method) and in order to overlap the layers, the functions in Arc GIS software in the form of Vicor model were used. The study area of this research is the city of Ardabil and its neighborhoods. The results of the research have shown that among the 6 general indicators of the research, the risk reduction index is more important than other indicators. Also, the spatial results regarding the institutional resilience of Ardabil city against environmental hazards indicate that the areas located in the northwest and northeast of Ardabil city (with marginal texture and villages integrated into the city) are in a state of damage. The central area of the city (with organic texture) and the southern part of the city (with planned texture) are in a state of resilience. In general, the high vulnerability of the lower neighborhoods (in terms of texture type) is due to the weakness of institutional dimensions.
Today, most of the world's population lives in urban areas and is always threatened by natural and man-made disasters. Since the role of cities in the social and economic development of countries is vital, therefore, the main challenge for many cities to move forward is to ensure sustainable quality promotion. The latest approach to reducing the city's vulnerability is the resilience approach. This approach has four dimensions, one of the most important of which is the institutional-organizational dimension. This dimension of resilience emphasizes the role of authorities in preventing disaster. According to research, the main problem in dealing with crises is its management before the accident. This is more common in developing countries, including Iran. As in recent years, we have witnessed many management problems in dealing with a variety of natural and human hazards. In this regard, the city of Ardabil is no exception to this rule and, like most cities in Iran, seems to be in an unfavorable institutional and managerial situation. In this regard, the present study tries to identify resilient and vulnerable areas and neighborhoods of Ardabil city in terms of institutional dimension and provide solutions to increase their institutional resilience. In order to achieve this goal, the main research questions are designed in such a way that what is the most important indicator of institutional resilience? And what is the situation of institutional resilience in Ardabil from the citizens' point of view? In fact, which neighborhoods are in a state of institutional resilience and which neighborhoods are in a state of institutional vulnerability?
The present research method is descriptive-analytical in nature and applied in terms of purpose. Field harvest method (questionnaire containing 27 questions) was used to collect research data. In such a way that a questionnaire was tried to be completed from each neighborhood according to their size and population and randomly classified, in this regard, the sample size of one thousand cases was considered. In this regard, an attempt was made to question the trusted people of the place and familiar with the research problem in the relevant neighborhood in a purposeful way (it should be mentioned that the answers to the research questions in the form of 5-point Likert scale are very low (1 point) to very high. (5 points) is). Also, to determine the weight of the criteria, the opinions of 10 relevant experts who were selected by snowball method have been used. It should be mentioned that in order to investigate the institutional resilience of Ardabil city and its neighborhoods, the Victor model in the form of Arc-GIS software has been used.
The results indicate that risk reduction indicators, institutional performance, institutional context, institutional relationships, governance and institutional independence are more important, respectively. Meanwhile, the risk reduction index alone has gained more than 37% of the points, which shows the very high importance of this index.
In general, the interpolated maps related to the indicators of institutional resilience indicate that the northern areas and neighborhoods of the city (especially the northwest and northeast of the city) are in a bad situation from the citizens' point of view. In front of the central and southern part of the city are in good condition.
According to the output of Vickor model, it can be said that the northwestern and northeastern regions of Ardabil are not in good condition in terms of institutional resilience and are considered vulnerable areas of the city. The value of Vicor index calculated in these areas is higher than other areas. Considering that in the Victor model, high values indicate the status of vulnerability and low values indicate the resilience status of the region in terms of the studied indicators, so the mentioned areas are considered vulnerable areas of Ardabil city. Among the most important neighborhoods in the vulnerable areas of the city can be found in Jankendi neighborhoods (Iranabad), Yahyaabad, Kazemabad, Mirasharf, Salmanabad, Darvishabad, Karimabad, Nizam. Abad, Vahdat, Panahabad, Khairabad, Orujaabad, Azar Ali, Ali Sarbaz, Zarnas, Hosseinabad, Golmaghan, Malayosef, Kalkhoran and Nyar mentioned and places like Hafez, Rezvan, Azadi, Azadegan, Quds, Wali, Beiza, Gazran, Mansouria, Abbasiyeh, Zeinal, Uch Dukan, Malahadi and Koi Memar are in a state of high institutional resilience, while other neighborhoods are in a state of relative resilience to relative vulnerability.
Resilience is one of the new topics in crisis management that has various dimensions, one of the most important of which is the institutional-organizational dimension. The result is that the resilience situation of Ardabil neighborhoods is not at the same level and the neighborhoods are in a different situation from resilience.
The northern regions of Ardabil city do not have favorable conditions in terms of institutional resilience indicators and are considered as vulnerable urban areas. In this part of Ardabil city, there are mostly suburban neighborhoods and integrated villages of Ardabil city, Iran-Abad, Mirashraf, Salmanabad, Darvish Abad neighborhoods are among the most important suburban neighborhoods and Golmaghan, Malayusuf, Kalkhoran and Nyar is also one of the villages integrated into the city of Ardabil, which are not in a good condition in terms of social, economic and physical conditions. In contrast, neighborhoods located in the central part of the city, which are considered as part of the organic and primary context of Ardabil city, and neighborhoods located in the planned context or residential towns, which are also referred to as newly established neighborhoods, are included in the scope. They are the institutional partners of Ardabil. Hafez, Rezvan, Azadi and Azadegan neighborhoods from the planned context and Gazran, Mansourieh, Abbasieh, Zeinal, Ochdekan and Memar neighborhoods from the organic context of Ardabil are in high institutional development conditions, which are social, economic and They also have a good body. Other neighborhoods of Ardabil are also in a state of relative resilience to relative vulnerability.
What can be concluded from the institutional resilience zoning of Ardabil city is that Ardabil city is in the middle (average) state of institutional resilience and vulnerability. Citizens located in Faradast neighborhoods (planned and organic contexts) have expressed satisfaction with the institutional resilience status and related indicators, but in the lower neighborhoods (informal or suburban housing contexts and villages integrated into the city). Or neighborhoods with a rural core) are relevant indicators of vulnerability. In a general conclusion, it can be inferred that the citizens of the lower neighborhoods of the city (in terms of texture type), the reason for the high vulnerability of their neighborhoods is the weakness of the institutional dimension.