Investigating the social factors affecting the phenomenon of animal abuse in the urban environment

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

3 PhD student in Geography and Urban Planning, Mohaghegh Ardabili University



Harm to animals is a socially abnormal behavior that in recent years, has been one of the examples of violence against animals, their killing or inappropriate social treatment by citizens, and one of the reasons for social fear and unprincipled treatment of urban animals, insufficient knowledge of They are. Animals are part of the natural society and have an effective and undeniable role in balancing the natural system. Accordingly, this study was conducted to investigate the social factors affecting the phenomenon of animal abuse in the city of Ardabil in terms of evaluating the indicators and components related to the phenomenon of animal abuse. The research method is applied according to the purpose and in terms of nature and descriptive-analytical method. The data required for this study have been collected through field and documentary methods. The statistical population of the study is Ardabil. In order to study the social factors affecting the phenomenon of animal abuse in the urban environment, 4 indicators in the form of 23 items were used, then the PROMETHEE multi-criteria decision model was used to analyze the data. The results show that the cultural-educational index with a score of 0.0208, the legal index with a score of 0.01614, the environmental index with a score of 0.01533, and the social index with a score of -0.00253 have the highest and lowest impact on the phenomenon of animal abuse, respectively. They are in Ardabil. It is necessary that the average of all studied indicators in terms of effectiveness is also higher than the average (3).

The network of life is organized in such a way that the life of every living being is inextricably linked with the life of other beings, and irrational interference in this network challenges the survival of the generation of all beings, including man. On the other side of this cycle, human action, in addition to leading to the destruction of forests and pastures, has also challenged species of animals with extinction and extinction. More than 50 species of animals and plants on the planet are becoming extinct every day, according to UN environmentalists. According to research conducted by this department, industrial development is known as the most important factor in the extinction of living organisms on earth. The system of nature is organized in such a way that the purification of many pollutions is done through animal species, so the absence or reduction of their number disrupts the natural purification system and is considered a threat to human health, and the world needs measures and Take prudent action. Animals are one of the most important ecosystems whose rights have attracted the attention of environmentalists more than any other creature. In recent decades, societies have focused on the fact that not only human beings have different rights; But everything on earth, including animals, has rights. In the meantime, on the one hand, the destruction of forests and pastures has narrowed the field for the survival of animal species, and on the other hand, uncontrolled hunting and the development of industrial and urban life have exposed rare animal species to extinction.

The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of research method. To do that, first the exploratory studies were done in the form of a documentary library and then, the main part of the research was the survey, which was done by completing a questionnaire. The statistical population of the study consists of citizens of Ardabil city (525702). Cochran's formula was used to obtain the statistical sample size, which was estimated to be 382 with an error rate of 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval. The questionnaire was distributed and completed by simple random sampling among the population over 15 years old. In order to study the social factors affecting the phenomenon of animal abuse in the urban environment, 4 indicators (environmental, legal, social, cultural and educational) in the form of 23 items were used, and following this goal, which of the studied indicators Another has more effects. The Prometheus multi-criteria decision model has been used in Excel. It should be noted that the content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by professors and experts and to calculate the reliability of the questions, first with a pre-test, the questionnaire was performed on a sample of 30 people and then the reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach's alpha method. And the overall coefficient was 0.830, which indicates the high level of reliability of the questionnaire. Table 1 shows the indicators used in the present study.
The Multi-Criteria Decision Model (MCDM) is a powerful tool that has been widely used to evaluate and rank problems involving multiple and more conflicting criteria. Among the many MCDM methods, Prometheus is remarkably suitable for ranking programs; Because this model brings integration and flexibility to the user and is very much in concept and application compared to other methods for analysis. In fact, Prometheus is the preferred structured ranking method for enriching the evaluation based on the comparison of each option. With each other according to the deviations that the alternatives show based on each criterion. Due to the structure of this model, this method allows direct evaluation to be performed on variables that are in the decision matrix without the need for normalization. This method was introduced in the 1985s by Brans and Wink for ranking. Among the important advantages of Prometheus method are simplicity, clarity and reliability of results and the possibility of sensitivity analysis in a simple and fast way. Finally, the ranking is done from the largest to the smallest number
Shannon entropy method
The concept of entropy was first used by Claude Shannon in communication sciences and later widely in various research fields such as social sciences, economics, physics. Shannon believed that entropy in information theory is a measure of the degree of uncertainty expressed by a discrete probability distribution, which is represented as a function. Equation (2) shows how much option a has priority over other options. The largest (a) + Φ means the best option. Equation (3):