عنوان مقاله [English]
Existence of small and scattered lands and non-geometric properties, lack of road network between farms and lack of aggregation of agricultural parts of each farmer, etc. cause the cost of production to increase at different stages of production. The ultimate goal in agricultural production is to reduce costs and increase production efficiency. By using advanced tools related to each stage of production and the so-called mechanization of production, the farmer's concern in providing production factors and inputs to perform tasks and critical times on time is reduced. In order to justify the implementation of the plan to equip and renovate lands in paddy fields, the amount of energy consumed in rice production of paddy fields in the stages before planting, planting, holding and harvesting rice in ten paddy fields where the plan of equipping and renovating lands was implemented and ten paddies without a plan In Bandar Anzali district, four duties were examined, which showed a decrease of 6448.27 megajoules per hectare of total energy consumption in rice production. The results show a reduction in reliance on labor (which is a limiting factor in agricultural production) and the import of agricultural implements with high farm capacity also leads to increased speed and convenience of agricultural work for farmers. Integration and suitable dimensions of land, creating irrigation and drainage canals, ease of entry and use of agricultural implements and mechanization of different stages from tillage to after harvest, reducing water and seed consumption, which are the most important inputs used, are the main reasons for this amount. Reduce energy consumption.
In the present era, on the one hand, with the increasing population growth and on the other hand, with the increase of various products from agricultural products in industry, the importance and value of agriculture has doubled. But due to the expansion of urbanization, the level of cultivation as the main axis of agriculture has sharply decreased and people are looking for a way to increase the productivity of the remaining lands. Today, agricultural systems, as a backbone of food security and production growth, are significant energy consumers. For various reasons, energy consumption in these systems, especially in developing countries, is often inefficient. Optimal use of energy is one of the main requirements of sustainable agriculture and the study of energy consumption patterns as a factor to assess the social and economic development of the country and identify these patterns in agricultural production leads to optimal use of energy that guarantees success and sustainability of production systems. Leads to environmental friendliness and public health, profitability and ease of operation for farmers. In addition, the pattern of energy use and the share of energy input in agricultural systems are different. Optimal use of farm-improved machinery combined with optimal use of other production resources makes it possible to increase rice crop yield to potential levels, so determining the impact of production systems on energy efficiency by focusing on mechanization of rice production is essential. It seems that among agricultural products, rice is highly dependent on labor and this dependence in all stages of production leads to an increase in the importance of mechanized rice cultivation in order to carry out agricultural operations on time and improve rice crop productivity. Given the growing need of the population to achieve sustainable food resources, as well as the limitation of the development of paddy lands and the limitation of production factors on the other hand, increasing yield by increasing energy efficiency in rice production will be of particular importance. Despite the importance of proper implementation of equipment and renovation of paddy lands, no special research work has been done to determine and compare energy consumption in equipped and renovated paddy fields and paddy fields without project implementation, to show the justification of project implementation. The purpose of this study is to study the extent of energy optimization and savings in the use of various factors of rice production using the plan to equip and modernize the paddy field as a new management system.
Bandar Anzali is located in a plain and coastal area with a longitude of 49 degrees and 28 minutes and a latitude of 37 degrees and 28 minutes and its altitude is 26 meters above sea level. Bandar Anzali is bounded by the Caspian Sea from the north, Anzali Wetland from the south, Rasht from the east and Rezvanshahr from the west, and is located 40 km from Rasht (the capital of Gilan province). This city has 4820 hectares of paddy lands in which about 30% of equipment and renovation has taken place. In this study, which was carried out in "Chahar Farizeh" village of Bandar Anzali city of Gilan province, twenty paddy fields in which ten lands had been equipped and the other ten paddy fields had not been implemented randomly and with an average area of 4000 to 10,000 square meters were studied and the energy consumption for rice production in different stages (land preparation, planting, holding and harvesting) was estimated for one hectare.
Input energy for agricultural production can be divided into two main categories: direct energy and indirect energy. Direct energy is energy that directly leads to work or effort on farms. Examples of direct energy sources include labor, fuel energy content, and electricity and irrigation energy. Indirect energy is the type of energy consumption before use on farms, such as energy consumption to produce fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. In order to show the effectiveness of the project of equipping and renovating lands in paddy fields and the amount of optimization and optimal management of energy consumption and thus increase production efficiency, energy consumption of production factors such as: workers and farmers, production inputs (water, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides ) (Machinery (tractor, tractor, planter, sprayer and combine) and fuel consumption that are commonly used in the region, production factor data using the relevant equations (1 to 4) and table data 1, which shows the equivalent amount of energy for each of the factors of production used in rice production to labor energies, inputs, machinery and fuel consumption per unit of megajoules per hectare was changed and examined. Finally, the total energy consumption was calculated by calculating the energy of rice production factors in two methods of paddy fields in which the equipment and renovation plan was implemented and paddy fields that did not implement the plan.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reduction of energy consumption and productivity of factors involved in rice production in paddy fields where the plan to equip and renovate lands was done in comparison with paddy fields in which the plan was not implemented. The highest energy consumption among the factors of production were inputs, which showed the reduction of energy consumption by implementing the plan of two important inputs, water and seed consumption, in the machinery and agricultural sector, as well as labor by reducing energy consumption. The end result in agricultural production is due to the reduction of costs and increase of production efficiency. The use of advanced equipment related to each stage of production and the so-called mechanization of production reduces the farmer's concern in providing production factors and inputs in the timely execution of tasks and critical times. In general, observing the reduction of energy consumption, training and promoting energy efficiency optimization with the implementation of the land equipping and renovation project will have a positive effect on the acceptance of farmers and farmers in the project due to the difficult cultivation of rice and high production costs. Due to the reduction of labor difficulty (mechanization of steps) and reduction of production costs and increase of efficiency will cause farmers to want to cultivate rice and not change land use and migration of farmers to the city due to unemployment. In addition, as observed in this study, the amount of energy consumption of all factors involved in rice production, except the use of fertilizers, pesticides and fuel, has decreased in the paddy fields where the equipment and modernization plan has been implemented. Non-optimal consumption of all three factors will have destructive effects on the ecosystem and public health, so study the effects of using these factors on the ecosystem and public health, as well as reduce the consumption of these inputs and optimize energy consumption associated with their use Accurate agriculture and the optimal and correct consumption of these factors in order to achieve sustainable agriculture, is necessary and should be carefully considered.