عنوان مقاله [English]
Effectiveness of Infographics on the Learning of
Thrifting of Drinking Water Consumption using5E framework,
Approaching Sustainability of Environment Biology
From the viewpoint of behaviorism, incorrect culture of consuming environmental resources exists in Iranian society at the time. No doubt, ignoring such a serious issue more or less affects all parts of the society’s biological life and health. Whiles, this wrong culture can be prevented and changed by an organised education program. In line with this, such a well-planned education system breeds the future generations finely. The system also prevents many plausible occurrence of environmental and human crises. But it seems that, the planners and policy makers of the formal education system have not adequately attention to such important aspects. One is the culture of correct consumption of resources in various fields. The necessity of teaching how to conserve drinking water to the younger people as future citizens in the formal education system, is an undeniable requirement and strategic investments in this field.
It is expected that education accelerates social progress through four different but interconnected goals: humanistic goals (through individual and collective quality developments); Civic goals (through strengthening public life and active citizen participation); Economic goals (by promoting people based on creating intellectual and practical skills that are productive and strengthen their living conditions and society, and goals related to improving social rights and justice (Spiel et al., 2018).
In terms of behavior change, the traditional education approaches need to be revised as it is mostly based on information transfer and pure speech. Rooted in the positivist epistemological approach and the behaviorist school of psychology, this education method has a passive attitude towards the learner and assigns him a small role in learning (Anderson, 1995). Therefore, there is serious doubt in the efficiency and effectiveness of traditional approaches to create behaviors and change; Because such an approach emphasizes on presenting the information only that is in contradiction with Piaget's (1970) conditions and stages of children's cognitive development.
According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, children in elementary school only think and learn based on tangible facts around them, and their learning model is learning by doing, not listening to the teacher's lecture! Thus, it is necessary to transform abstract education into objective and concrete education. In this context, David Merrill (2007) believes that every educational presentation should include two elements of expressing information and displaying them, and it is better to present both these elements in the context of a real problem. Problem-oriented teaching or learning is rooted in constructivist psychology. From the perspective of epistemology, it is opposed to the approach of positivism and behavioral psychology (Shank, 2000). In this approach, the student is the center of learning and the agent of knowledge production (Santrak, 2004) and the teacher's role is to guide and facilitate the learning process (Fetsko McClure, 2005).
Now the question arises whether the current approaches of the education system have been successful in changing the culture of consuming environmental resources? In response, it can be concluded that owing to the reduction or exhaustion of natural resources such as water resources, forests and other natural reserves during the past years, the current education system has not worked as it should in teaching the right culture of using these resources. As a result, children are indifferent to important issues such as saving drinking water. This is despite the fact that early childhood education can lead to the formation of a correct behavioral culture; It is also possible to draw the attention of children and teenagers to the importance of the optimal use of environmental resources by using artistic methods in presenting educational materials in schools and kindergartens. It should be from the beginning and institutionalize acceptable behavior in them so that in the future they will have to spend huge costs. Not to encourage people to do them.
The current research is a quasi-experimental applied research in which a pre-test-post-test design with a control group is used. The statistical population of the present study was the groups of female students of the fourth grade of elementary school in Tehran in the academic year of 2017-2018. Considering such a statistical power, significance level (0.05) and the strength of the relationship between different independent and dependent variables and based on Coles' opinion, which states that 15 participants are suggested for each school level and considering that In this experimental experiment, it has 3 levels (two experiments and 1 control), and to increase the power of the statistical test and the external validity of 45 of the exceptional female students (15 of the above group), the static infographic; 15 people from dynamic infographic group; and 15 people in the control group) were selected as samples using the cluster sampling method. After selection, the clusters were randomly divided into 3 experimental and control groups.
There is no significant difference between the static infographic group and the dynamic infographic group with a significance level of 0.32 (P>0.05). The adjusted average of the static infographic display group was (11.81) and the adjusted average of the dynamic infographic group was (11.03), according to the results of the analysis of covariance and the adjusted averages and considering the limitations of the research, it can be said that there is a difference between the effect of static and dynamic infographics on There is no significant difference in learning to save drinking water.
Discussion and conclusion
This research aims to determine the effectiveness of static and dynamic infographics for drinking water consumption by children, and the results of covariance analysis show that the use of infographics for consumerism has a significant effect on the consumption of drinking water by children. Therefore, the research hypothesis is confirmed (p<0.001). The research’s finding is aligned with the findings of Chifci (2016) and Ozdamli et al. (2016).
It can be said that since infographics are useful in changing the class atmosphere and attracting students' attention (Smiciklas, 2012), they become more effective and faster to communicate with each other (Matrix and Hodson, 2014), infographics change student behaviors. Therefore, this medium can be considered as a potential tool in social and moral development of students. Such educational materials can be used in character education or personal training and help students to internalize values and provide for their growth by clarifying students' mental states and attitudes (Islamoglu et al., 2015). Accordingly, infographics are audio - visual aids that advantageous in addition to actualization, the academic progress and attitude of students (Chifci, 2016). Learners have opportunities to transform their ideas into infographic forms. In other words, visualization is a method that makes the information to be understood and engraved in the student's mind. Therefore, students can shape, organize, and edit information in this process (Smeciklas, 2011). Infographics also are useable effectively and stimulatingly in different courses, educational levels and learning fields, when visual and informational materials need to be presented together. Therefore, various methods are in use when reducing academic achievement, limited attitude and low motivation of students (Chifci, 2016). Visualization is a powerful tool to use (Medina, 2008). Many design theories and message theories support this idea. For example, the "super image theory" explains how tools are learned faster by seeing an image than reading text, because the human brain is primarily designed for visualization. (Clark and Mayer, 2018). Pavio's (1971) dual code theory posits that when people see an image, multiple neural pathways are activated to support memory. As a result, people's perception and attitude increase after using infographics.
From an educational perspective, infographics attract attention, create connections, convey concepts, reduce cognitive complexity, create beautiful artifacts, and create or activate a schema through which to represent familiar topics and information for the learner. (Clark and Lyons, 1389). An effective infographic in an educational setting can serve as a job aid, pre-organizer, mind map, content summary, and study and attitude change tool. It conveys also the gist or gist of a message without one having to read the relevant text in its entirety (Ware, 2012); By viewing, the reader can understand an infographic at a glance. Use infographics when tables, charts, and text cannot convey a concept clearly and completely (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).
The combination and dynamic image with sound will teach people the text more efficiently and lastingly than the text alone. Infographics support cognitive processing, recognition, recognition and retrieval, and attitude change. The power of infographics lies in the fact that while accurately and clearly conveying the content, it is a way to present a large amount of content in a limited time and space. Because visual presentation, compared to text or oral expression, shows a story and the relationships within it much faster (Dunlap and Lowenthal, 2016). Infographics convey complex information with visual brevity and analysis and educate students.