تحلیل جایگاه مدیریت پسماند در قوانین برنامه توسعه جمهوری اسلامی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد حقوق عمومی دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران.

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه قم، دانشیار گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، قم، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت پسماند به عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین دغدغه‌های جوامع بشری مطرح می‌باشد. افزایش روزافزون حجم پسماندها از یک سو و تنوع و گوناگونی آن‌ها از سوی دیگر بر پیچیدگی شرایط، نحوۀ جمع‌آوری و دفع آن‌ها می‌افزاید. از آنجا که برنامه‌های توسعۀ کشور، مهم‌ترین اسناد سیاستی هستند که در آن‌ها اهداف و راهبردهای توسعه،‌ با توجه به آرمان‌ها، توانایی‌ها، امکانات و شرایط محیطی کشور تدوین گشته است؛ توجه به مدیریت پسماند در این برنامه‌ها می‌تواند نقش مؤثری داشته باشد. در نوشتار حاضر به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، برنامه‌های توسعۀ کشور را در رابطه با مدیریت پسماند بررسی کرده‌ایم. با مطالعۀ این برنامه‌ها، به مباحث مختلف مرتبط با این موضوع از جمله پساب‌ها و فاضلاب شهری، جریمه‌های آلودگی، مدیریت پسماندهای خطرناک، روش‌های نوین دفع و بازیافت پسماند که در این برنامه‌ها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است، پرداخته‌ایم. نتایج به دست آمده از این بررسی نشان داد که وضعیت مدیریت پسماندها در قوانین برنامه‌ای در سال‌های اخیر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است اما برای رسیدن به هدف نهایی که توسعۀ پایدار است، نیازمند برنامه‌ای با یک دید همه جانبه به تمامی عوامل موثر بر مدیریت پسماند هستیم که می‌توان توسط برنامه‌ریزی‌های دقیق و اصولی در این راستا گام نهاد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the position of waste management in the laws of the Development program of the Islamic Republic of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • marzieh rashedi 1
  • Ali Mashhadi 2
1 Master of Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Public and International Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract

Introduction
The increase in population and the expansion of urbanization, followed by the growth of industrial units, has led to the production of waste and pollutants, and the amount of effluents and wastes that humans enter the environment has increased. So that it is one of the most fundamental dangers of human society. Today, traditional waste collection and disposal systems are not accountable and can not prevent environmental pollution caused by various types of chemical, microbial, radioactive waste. Therefore, the scope of management of this category is very wide and variable, for such an issue there is no other way but management and strategic program. Waste pollution is not only a factor in increasing economic costs, but also a threat to human health both mentally and physically. Various wastes are the inevitable result of the widespread use of chemicals and industrial and agricultural products in everyday life. Global experience has shown that if waste is not properly managed and these materials are not converted into less hazardous materials by scientific and technical methods or are not disposed of properly and properly, they will be the source of many hazards and threats. Waste is an unavoidable product of any society, the management of which is one of the basic needs of society. Therefore, having a waste management system is essential. Waste management is as one of the most important concerns of human societies. Increasing volume of waste on the side and their diversity furthermore adds to the complexity of the conditions and how to collect and dispose of them. Waste management has always been one of the most important issues that governments consider in macro and regulatory laws and regulations. The urban waste management system in its modern sense emerged in the 1930s in industrialized countries. This becomes important for governments when the environmental and health risks of waste increase and find the dimensions of human rights and citizenship. In this regard, the purpose of this writing is to investigate the approach of the country's development programs in connection with waste management. Because of the importance of these programs in the development of the country, their study on the one hand provides the possibility of recognizing the shortcomings of the national development process and on the other hand corrects the trends. Also, since program laws are considered the most important development document in the country; Therefore, paying attention to waste management in the country's program laws can be an effective step in solving these cases.

Methodology
Whereas the country's development plans are the most important policy documents in which development goals and strategies are formulated according to the ideals, capabilities, facilities and environmental conditions of the country; Paying attention to waste management in these programs can play an effective role. In this research, by descriptive-analytical method, first, considering the ambiguity of the concept of waste management to define and express this concept, then we have reviewed and analyzed the laws of the development program of the Islamic Republic of Iran in relation to waste management. In such a way that Articles related to the discussion of waste management are extracted and then these Articles, according to the different expressed subjects in them, categorized in six titles Municipal wastewater and sewage, pollution fines, hazardous waste management, new methods of waste disposal and recycling, financial issues of waste management.

Conclusion
By studying the provisions of the program laws, it became clear that the situation of waste management in Iran in recent years has been considered. Waste management is one of the most important pillars in sustainable development that the Law on Waste Management as a turning point in the attention of the Iranian legal system to the issue of "waste" as a comprehensive law in the field of dealing with the dangerous effects of pollution and problems caused by waste for their optimal management was approved by the legislature. Waste management is seriously considered in the Fourth Development Program Act. Also, one of the policies of the Sixth Development Program is to establish a comprehensive waste management system and to develop and support the recycling industry. So that the establishment of a comprehensive waste management system with the establishment of the system of evaluation, monitoring and monitoring of recycling activities are among the basic measures envisaged in this area. Pollution crimes in the third and fifth development programs have been considered for the comprehensive management and sustainable development of water resources in the country, according to which units that produce wastewater with more pollution than the national standards, in case of violation Execution of Sewage collection installations, filtration and Sanitary disposal of effluent are subject to fines. The management of some hazardous and new wastes, including nuclear wastes, is one of the challenges considered by legislators in the countries, which is also mentioned in Iranian law in the Fifth Development Program. One of the important issues and problems of countries is the achievement of new methods of waste management, which has been considered in the fourth, fifth and sixth development programs. Finally, it must be acknowledged that communities have faced one of the most important consequences of industrial development over the past few decades, and that improper transportation of waste is a major contributor to environmental pollution; Waste is one of the most fundamental hazards of human society that is considered an integral part of human life today, Therefore, having a waste management system is essential. Program rules can play a role in waste management and promote pollution control as industries develop. But to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development with an emphasis on environmental protection, we need a plan with a comprehensive view of all the factors affecting waste management, which can be taken in this direction by careful and principled planning, so that with proper management, these rules can be used in appropriate directions. Therefore, in the next step, we can think about filling the gaps and weaknesses and its pathology, and prepare and provide the necessary decision and action to improve its implementation status.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • development programs
  • sustainable development
  • Waste disposal and recycling
  • Environmental protection
  • Waste Management