عنوان مقاله [English]
The development of environmental preservation is considered as one of the important usage in the coastal development approach in the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) of the country. Therefore, it is required to present a model based on the ecological parameters, social and economic criteria, to codification and define the strategies for desirable development of this area usage in the coasts of the country. There has not yet been done a comprehensive research on protect ecologically sensitive coastal resources and its development of Hormozgan province that can coordinate the activities of the suitable development approach to preserve the environmental these areas. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to develop a model for strategic planning for the development of environmental preservation in the coasts of Hormozgan province in line with integrate coastal management using integrated multi-criteria decision-making techniques. That can maintain the ecological vital, wildlife protection systems, biodiversity, as well as reducing the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems and their inhabitants to natural and human hazards resulting from the development approach. In this study, not only the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the development of protected areas were identified and evaluated, but also strategies were developed and practical solutions were provided for the appropriate development of this land use in the coasts of Hormozgan province with considering of the ecological potential of the region's coasts. Also, the codification and prioritization of strategies has been done using multi-criteria decision-making techniques (MCDM), especially the integrated SWOT-ANP model, while preserving vital ecological processes and environmentally sensitive resources.
Materials and methods
In order to collect the information of current applied research, a documentary method based on library studies and a survey approach using interviews and questionnaires were used. Then, SWOT analysis and network analysis process (ANP) were used to analyze the data and determine appropriate strategies. Also, the main key internal factors and the main strategic external factors were mothed using SWOT matrix (SWOT) after identification and evaluation to develop four strategies that be in line with the research goal and in accordance with the internal and external factors of the studied condition. Ultimately, in order to decide on the developed strategies in the previous stage, the integration of SWOT and ANP methods were analyzed and interpreted using applied software without applying personal opinion, and optimal strategies for desirable development of environmental protection were selected in the coasts of Hormozgan province.
In order to present and determine the general priority of optimal development strategies for environmental protection in the coasts of Hormozgan province, recognizing the four SWOT factors to eliminate weaknesses and threats, improve strengths and opportunities is inevitable. Therefore, initially, the effects of internal and external environment in the studied area to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, which coastal region is facing in line with the appropriate development of protection. Regarding to the accomplished studies and the assessment of the situation around the studied area, key internal and external effective factors on the target area was evaluated in terms of suitable development of coastal environmental protection, eventually possible strategies were developed.
Once the strategies are identified, it is time to prioritize them. In order to determine the priority of the developed strategies and determine the best strategies using the ANP method and through the conversion issue into a hierarchical structure was done. A network model was used to transform the sub-factors of SWOT and strategies into a state that can be measured by ANP technique.
Therefore, at this stage, assuming the lack of interdependence among the main factors, pairwise comparisons of the main factors was constructed using 9 scale table Saaty. The matrix of pairwise comparisons was analyzed using Super decision software, ultimately, the degree of importance of SWOT factors (W1) was obtained as follows.
At this stage, by determining the internal relationship among SWOT factors and interpreting internal and external environments, paired comparisons were established base on the internal dependence for SWOT factors. Ultimately, the result of the internal dependence matrix among SWOT (W2) factors is as follows:
At this stage, the weights of internal dependence of the main factors were obtained through normalization of the dependence matrix multiplication of the main factors (W2), with the relative importance of the main factors (W1).
In the next step, weight or overall preference of SWOT sub-factors were calculated through multiplied the main factors weight (W Factors) to the relative weights of the sub-factors (W Sub-Factors).
Afterward, the degree of importance of the strategies was calculated according to each SWOT sub-factors. Then, with comparing 24 SWOT sub-factors with strategies, the W4 matrix was obtained.
Finally, the overall priority of strategies, which is the interrelationship between SWOT factors, was calculated; the matrix of pairwise comparisons of strategies (W4) multiplied by the overall preference SWOT sub-factors (W Sub-Factors) and as a result, the overall priority of strategies was obtained as below.
Thus, SO strategies with a score of 0.384 were the best strategies for the optimal development of environmental protection in the coasts of Hormozgan province.
According to the development and implementation of management programs in the field of protection and development of coastal environment, humans must to consider the environmental conditions to live better on the coast by conserving environmental resources in sensitive coastal areas, but in the long term these management plans require to a critical and strategic analysis. The aim present study was to provide the best strategies for the desirable development of environmental protection in the coastal areas of Hormozgan province using the integrated model ANP-SWOT. The results revealed that SO strategies was the best strategies for desirable developing of this usage. Because these strategies have gained the most score among the four group strategies. These strategies are:
Implement an integrated coastal management plan to prevent adverse effects on sensitive coastal-marine areas of the province, owing to sectoral decisions and the implementation of environmentally unsuitable plans
Identification of coastal areas with ecological potential for environmental protection and development of these areas in order to maintain the conservation approach in the integrated coastal management of the province
Use of financial and technical support of international organizations to precise execution, also strengthen the laws related to environmental protection in sensitive coastal areas
Utilizing the topographic and ecological location of the province to develop the environmental quality of the coasts, and integration of environmentally friendly land uses