عنوان مقاله [English]
Increasing environmental problems, threats to public health indicators, limited access to recreational facilities, and ultimately to the increasing weakness of access to sustainable development. Meanwhile, due the worrying and increasing threat to health of citizens' lives, urban planners and health planners introduce a relatively new term called health planning, which seeks to link the urban environment with physical and mental health. They are urban dwellers and they strengthen their decisions some basic issues such as urban health, demographic welfare and quality of improving human life. Today, most countries the world, especially developing countries, are facing the phenomenon of widespread urban sprawl. In addition to environmental consequences and social and cultural damage, this trend has affected the health of citizens. With growth and development of urbanization in developing societies, urbanization problems such as environmental degradation, pollution, housing shortages, quality of life have created difficult conditions for urban residents and public health has decreased significantly. About quarter of century ago Increasing issues to growth of cities have led attention to issues such as sustainable development and healthy city. The healthy city approach is considered as dominant approaches in urban and rural studies and even on national scale. Considering the importance the environmental index most important indicators affecting the development of healthy city, this study was conducted with the aim of assessing the environmental situation of Ardabil with healthy city approach.
The present study a descriptive-analytical study with applied purpose. this study, the environmental situation of Ardabil city the approach of healthy city of Ardabil the form 16 criteria (environmental health status, use of safe drinking water, waste production, quality of waste collection system management And its burial, access to green space and parks, the amount of dust in the air, the beauty of urban public spaces, noise pollution, visual pollution, optimal distribution of land uses, access to suitable walking space, access to suitable cycling space, Existence of sufficient number of recreational and sports places, ratio of green space to residential, rate of use of renewable energy, quality of environmental education have been studied and the basis for selecting criteria is based on library and documentary studies. The validity of the content of the questionnaire questions was confirmed by professors and experts and the reliability of the questionnaire was obtained using Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.817. To obtain the sample size of Ama Ray used Cochran's formula which was estimated to 382 with an error rate of 0.05 and a confidence interval of 95%. In order to increase the accuracy of work, 400 questionnaires (80 questionnaires for each region) were randomly distributed in Ardabil city. Shannon entropy method was used to determine the weight of research criteria and Prometheus model was used to analyze the data. The Multi-Criteria Decision Model (MCDM) is powerful tool has widely used to evaluate and rank problems involving multiple and more conflicting criteria. Among the many MCDM methods, Prometheus is remarkably suitable for ranking programs; Because this model brings integration and flexibility to user, and terms of concept and application compared other methods for analysis. In fact, Prometheus is preferred structured ranking method for enriching the evaluation based on comparison each the options with each other according to the deviations that the alternatives show based on each criterion. Due to structure this model, this method allows direct evaluation without the need to normalize the variables that decision matrix. This method was introduced in 1985 by Brans and Wink for ranking. Among the important advantages of Prometheus method are simplicity of clarity and reliability the results and possibility of sensitivity analysis in simple and fast way. Finally, the ranking is done from largest to the smallest number. The following are the steps for implementing the PROMETHEE model:
1- Forming a decision matrix and determining the type criteria (in terms of profit and cost): In this step, while forming a decision matrix, we determine the positive and negative indicators.
2. Determining the weight of indicators: In the present study, Shannon entropy method has used to calculate the weight of criteria. (Table 2)
3. The weighted sum the superiority the option: is obtained by following relation. Equation (1):
4. Positive and Negative Ranking Flow: If number of options (denoted by n) is more than two, the final ranking is obtained by sum the values of pairwise comparisons. The ranking stream can obtained using Equation (2) and Equation (3):
Equation (2): Positive ranking flow
This stream shows how much option a has priority over other options. The largest (a) + Φ means the best option.
Equation (3): Negative rating stream
This flow shows how much other options take precedence. What is the smallest value of the (a - Φ option the best option? The ranking of options can be ranked with positive or negative current. The two rankings are not usually the same, but the decision maker It always wants complete ranking because it will be easier to decide.
Due to fact that in order to calculate the average of the criteria, a 5-point Likert scale is used and the ranks 1 to 5 are assigned to the questions. Therefore, the number 3 is considered the theoretical middle ground of the answers. Figure 3 shows that both positive and negative environmental criteria of healthy city in Ardabil are bad situation. The average of all positive variables is less than the average (3). But in the negative criteria, except for amount of dust in the air (C6), the average the other negative criteria is higher than the average (3). The PROMETHEE model has used to rank the areas of Ardabil city. The final final output obtained from this model is according to Table (3).
Based the results obtained from Table 3, the net superiority value Φ of Region Two with score of )0.01629(, Region One with score of )0.0444(, Region Three with score of )0.01334(, Region Five with score of )0.00502( and Region Four with score of )-0.00703( to They have highest and lowest levels of environmental health the city, respectively. In general, the research findings show. The city of Ardabil is not a good position in terms of the criteria studied. Comparison the most prosperous region (region 2) with the most deprived region (region 4) in terms of environmental criteria of Salem city indicates that existence of Shurabil recreation site in region 2 has the most positive effect the criteria (access to green space and parks) c5 ), The beauty of public spaces (C7), access to suitable space for walking and cycling (C11), (C12), the existence of recreational place (c14). Also, the establishment of women's park this area distinguishes this area from other areas. In contrast, District 4 of the city, because it is one the sub-urban areas, has been evaluated as unfavorable in all the studied criteria and is critical condition.Figure (3) The status of each the environmental criteria of healthy city Separately shows the five urban areas of Ardabil.
Environment; Healthy City ; PROMETHEE; Ardabil City