عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study is to identify and manage HSE risks in the chemistry laboratory of Najafabad University. First, the risk was identified in the laboratory using the Delphi method. A Delphi implementation and monitoring team was formed, which consists of ten specialists. Then, all the indicators used were collected based on the study of literature and research in this field and the initial questionnaire was prepared. This questionnaire was sent to the experts for review to answer the questions based on their importance. Then, the answers received in the first period eliminated. Then a new questionnaire was sent to the individuals with suggested indicators. After collecting the first round of questionnaires, the second round of questionnaires was distributed and the output indicators of the first round were examined. This operation was repeated in the third round and finally HSE risks were selected in the chemistry laboratory of Najafabad University. Then, the identified risks were analyzed by FMEA method. Based on the results, iodoform test and synthesis of dibenzalone acetone were identified as the most dangerous were analyzed. In this round, the indicators that did not score in the first round were activities in terms of harmful effects on health. Qualitative analysis of some anions was in the second place and elemental analysis was in the third place. Qualitative decomposition of some anions was identified as the most important risk in terms of safety hazards. The synthesis of dibenzalone in the second place and permanganometry were recognized as the third high-risk in this category. The synthesis of adipic acid in the second place and the decomposition of group V cations in the third place were recognized as the most important risks in terms of environmental hazards after the synthesis of methyl salicylate. Synthesis of methyl salicylate was recognized as the most important risk in all three dimensions of safety, health and environmental hazards.
Due to the variety of educational disciplines, various laboratory operations are performed in the university laboratory, which can be exposed to various harmful chemical, biological and safety factors. The most important injuries caused by these factors include burns and corrosion caused by acids, respiratory injuries caused by inhalation of gases and toxins, liver, kidney, central nervous system and cancer due to poisoning caused by heavy metals and organic solvents, infectious contaminants caused by microorganisms. It has been transmitted to humans, and fires and electric shocks have also been reported. Laboratory wastes are classified as hazardous wastes due to their toxicity, corrosion, flammability and reactive properties. The establishment of HSE management system in organizations, companies and small and large industries in the world is always done based on a series of guidelines. The ultimate goal of the HSE management system is to protect people in the community, property and the environment. Prevention of injuries and accidents, health, safety and environment in order to sustainable development and increase productivity by considering the health and safety of employees, customers, contractors and others requires the existence of a structure of health, safety and environmental management system. HSE management system has been a management tool to control and improve the performance of health, safety and environment in all development programs and industrial projects or organizations, by creating a creative cultural context and a new and systematic approach to sustainable development and human dignity, in an integrated and By converging and integrating the manpower and facilities and equipment and by using the efficient training system, periodic audits, continuous evaluation and improvement, minimize the adverse effects of industry on the environment and increase its desired effects by ensuring the overall safety of all employees and colleagues. Organization, equipment and facilities and zero accidents and injuries caused by work by controlling or eliminating unsafe conditions and improving the health of people by applying management, engineering and executive control strategies at all levels of the organization as well as environmental protection as human capital.
In this study, Delphi and FMEA methods were used. Following the preparation and preparation of a preliminary study questionnaire, the questionnaires were distributed among 10 specialized and experienced people in the laboratory of Najafabad University; Expert opinions on hazards were evaluated in the laboratory of Najafabad University and FMEA method was used to analyze the data. The Delphi method is used in cases where insufficient and unreliable knowledge is available or there are limitations in the application of mathematical rules, formulas and models. In other words, the judgment is left to the experts. This method polls people in order to examine the attitudes and judgments of individuals and expert groups as well as to create coordination between views. These surveys are conducted in several stages using a questionnaire and without requiring people to attend a certain place. At the end of summarizing, evaluating and analyzing the set of views and opinions of individuals, is the basis for goal setting, program development or decision making. The main idea in designing the Delphi method process is that the respondents can express their views without being influenced by reputable and famous people and people who have good speaking power in meetings. In this method, by eliminating the effect of the ability of individuals to speak, all opinions and ideas are collected and after analysis are returned to the questioned members. Thus, anonymity and feedback are essential elements of the Delphi method. One of the advantages of this method is that experts and specialists can reconsider their opinions without losing their prestige and credibility when they realize that their opinion is wrong for compelling reasons.Participants in the Delphi study in the present study include 10 professors of chemistry at Najafabad University and HSE management.
Preparation of lead chloride from lead nitrate and crystallization, acid and base titration, determination of calcium carbonate by acidimetric-alkaline assay, limonene extraction, distillation, crystallization, soap preparation, decomposition of group I cations, decomposition of group III cations, measurement of iron to Furic acid method, measurement of iron by spectrophotometry, measurement of chloride ion by Wilhard method, determination of liquid surface tension, determination of liquid viscosity, refractometry, application of conductivity in the study of chemical reaction kinetics, iodine reaction kinetics with acetone, preparation of boric acid from borax, Preparation of low-risk potassium metapridate, elemental analysis, decomposition of group V cations, iodoform test among moderate risks and qualitative decomposition of some anions, permanganometry, synthesis of adipic acid, synthesis of methyl salicylate, synthesis of dibenzalstone were identified as risk Therefore, it is necessary to design control measures to eliminate the risks or reduce any of the factors affecting the RPN.