عنوان مقاله [English]
Evaluation of health performance of women’s and men’s hairdresser shops in Baft city according to health indicators and infection transmission in 2019
The role of the environment in human health has always been considered. The public places are part of the environment around the human being, which are important because of the role they have in the health of the individual and society. Hairdresser shops are among the public places where their sanitation and hygiene is important. Neglect to hygienic standards and the use of contaminated tools and equipment such as towels, brushes, razors, etc. can cause the transmission and spread of many diseases. In the last twenty years, hairdressing has undergone fundamental changes due to changes in the materials and techniques used and improved vocational training. The transmission of dangerous diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis was identified and considered. Hairdressers can spread diseases such as fungal infections (direct contact), head lice, staphylococcal, scabies (contaminated with towels, combs and aprons), hepatitis B and C, tetanus and AIDS (razor blade). In hairdressers, contact with skin irritants, frequent exposure to water, shampoos, conditioners, and some cleansers may also occur. In hairdressing salons, some chemicals are known to be allergenic and potentially carcinogenic. Sometimes in hairdressing salons, in addition to the usual activities, tasks such as mole removal and tattooing are performed, which can cause diseases such as warts and alopecia. Hairdressers are also one of the largest groups affected by occupational dermatitis. In general, blood-borne infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B and AIDS, are more important. A key factor in the transmission of hepatitis B, C, and even AIDS is razor-sharpening by hairdressers. Various factors are involved in the transmission of diseases through hairdressers, the most important of which are the lack of awareness of hairdressers about the principles and essentials of hygiene, lack of facilities and the provision of personal hairdressing equipment, Improper space and unsanitary beauty salons, lack of sensitivity in the operators and clients regarding the observance of hygienic principles of hairdressing, and failure to perform disinfection or incomplete disinfection. Sanitation and hygiene of hairdressers are very important to prevent the transmission of many diseases. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the health performance of women’s and men’s hairdressers in Baft city according to health indicators and infection transmission in 2019.
In the present descriptive cross-sectional study, the study population included all men's and women's hairdressers in Baft (38 women's hairdressers and 11 men's hairdressers) which were evaluated by census. The tools used in this study were the standard checklist extracted from the form of hairdressing regulations, which was completed in three sections: personal hygiene, building health and improvement, and hygiene of tools and equipment, and a total of 28 questions. Data were collected in collaboration with environmental health experts through direct observation and interviews with administrators. The questions had three options: "Compliance with regulations", "Non-compliance with regulations" and "Not applicable", each of which was assigned scores of 1, 1- and 0, respectively. Then, based on the total scores obtained in each section, the classification was done in three levels: favorable (score above 60%), average (score 30% to 60%) and unfavorable (score less than 30%). Statistical analysis of data was performed by Excel and SPSS software version 19 with a significance level of 0.05 (analytical statistics: Fisher's exact test, descriptive statistics: number and percentage of frequency). In order to observe ethics in the present study, the names of the centers under study were avoided; In addition, the inspections were carried out with the prior consent of the relevant authorities and centers and with the code of ethics IR.SIRUMS.REC.1399.032 from the Deputy of research and technology, Sirjan University of Medical Sciences. Personal hygiene status was undesirable in 36.8% and 36.4% of men's and women's hairdressers, respectively. In 40.82% of hairdressers, the use of public equipment was not prohibited. The hygiene status of tools and equipment was unsatisfactory in 42.1% and 45.5% of men's and women's hairdressers. Building hygiene was poor in 36.8% of women's and 27.3% of men's hairdressers. 20.41% of hairdressers were poorly ventilated. According to Fisher's exact test, no significant difference was observed between the health performance of male and female hairdresser’s shops in all three indicators including personal hygiene, building health and improvement, and hygiene of tools and equipment (P-value ˃ 0.05). It was indicated that both groups generally had relatively similar health functions. It can be due to the lack of quality of health education courses for operators and staff and subsequently the need for continuous monitoring of hairdressers and improving the quality of these train courses.
Achieving optimal health conditions is of particular importance due to its direct relationship with human health. Failure to follow the principles and disregard for hygienic standards in hairdressers can lead to problems and transmission of various infectious diseases such as hepatitis B and AIDS. The present study showed that there are shortcomings in the observance of health performance indicators in the studied hairdressers. Personal health status was reported to be unsatisfactory in 36.8% and 36.4% of men's and women's hairdressers, respectively. In 40.82% of hairdressers, the ban on the use of common equipment was not observed, and the health status of tools and equipment was unsatisfactory in 42.1% and 45.5% of men's and women's hairdressers. Building hygiene was unsatisfactory in 36.8% of women's hairdressers, 27.3% of men's hairdressers, and 20.41% of hairdressers lacked proper ventilation. The results of statistical analysis and Fisher's exact test showed that in all three areas of personal hygiene, tool and equipment hygiene, and building improvement and building hygiene, there is no significant relationship between men's and women's hairdressers (P˃0.05). The shortcomings in three indicators of environmental health status, showed the need for continuous monitoring of hairdressers and improving the quality of health education courses for operators. Prohibition of the use of common devices is recommended due to the possibility of disease transmission. To prevent respiratory problems caused by the use of chemicals and dyes, proper ventilation also seemed necessary.
Health index, Hairdresser shop, Environmental health, Baft