عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, ecotourism has a special situation in the world. As most countries have included it in their economic, social and cultural planning, and because of its many benefits, each country has launched extensive publicity to introduce its attractions. In this study, in order to allocate lands for ecotourism development, a multi-criteria evaluation method based on the process of hierarchical analysis and weighted linear composition in Kohmareh Sorkhi region of Shiraz city was used. Ecological criteria including land use, soil depth, and distance from the village, height, direction of slope, slope, distance from river, and distance from road were used. Then, according to previous research in this field, priority was given to prioritizing important variables in terms of the importance of zoning for tourism development, and each layer was weighted using hierarchical analysis. In the next step, constraint layers such as (slope, distance from the road, village and river) were constructed using Boolean logic. Then the desired layers in Idrisi software were identified by linear weighting method and using hierarchical analysis weights and constraint layers, suitable areas for ecotourism. Slope criterion with a weight of 0.32 had the highest weight and was the first priority in the ecotourism. Also, land use with a weight of 0.22 was in the second priority and distance from the village with a weight of 0.15 was in the third priority. The final Zoning map of tourism potential areas by linear weight combination method showed that it is very suitable with an area of 2336 hectares, 4% of the area, suitable with an area of 11527 hectares, 19% of the area, somewhat suitable with an area of 32745 hectares, 54% of the area and unsuitable with an area of 14320 hectares, including 24 percent.
The tourism industry has a large share in the national income of countries. Using GIS and multi-criteria decision-making processes, when the number of options and criteria are high, the selection of places prone to tourism and the prioritization of those areas is done more accurately and precisely. Policy makers and development planners in the region to make a better decision by better understanding the location and potential of regions for sustainable tourism development can use this issue. In the present study, we simultaneously used Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and weighted linear composition (WLC), based on the analysis and use of appropriate criteria in the region. To prepare a suitability map for tourism activities appropriate to the conditions of the forested area of Koohmoreh Sorkhi of Shiraz county with an area of 742 square kilometers located 30 km west of Shiraz. These were done to identify and propose areas prone to tourism development.
The topography of the study area indicates that this area is mountainous. Rural areas in of Koohmoreh Sorkhi region include narrow natural terraces along rivers and plain areas are rarely seen in this area. There are 36 villages in the region, some of which are uninhabited and some of which are uninhabited in some seasons. The main occupation of the people of the region is animal husbandry and they are engaged in agricultural activities in the parts along the river, including rice cultivation and gardening. The villages of the region have electricity and telephone facilities, some villages have health houses, and the access road to all villages is asphalt. Currently, there is only one recreational area in the village of Masarm with an area of about 1 hectare with a capacity of 250 people. After reviewing various references and considering the existing data layers, physical, biological and infrastructure criteria for tourism activities were selected. In this study, using WLC (weighted linear composition) method with the help of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and Boolean logic, a systematic process for locating tourism activities in Koohmoreh Sorkhi region was organized. In this research, information layers of slope, distance from river (meters), distance from road (meters), land use type, distance from village (meters), elevation (meters), aspect and soil depth as criteria for surveying potential areas for tourism activities were used from the study area. In addition, the layers of distance from the village, distance from the river, distance from the road and slope classes were used as the limiting criteria to use Boolean logic. These data layers show that it is not possible to establish a tourism zone from one area onwards. This means that in the study area, lands that are in limitation of the four mentioned data layers are removed from the final maps obtained from the methods of hierarchical analysis and weighted linear composition using the AND operator. Restriction maps are zero and one in nature, which could be a part of margin of rivers, villages, roads etc. Using AHP and expert opinions, the weight of data layers were calculated by forming a matrix of pairwise comparisons and performing mathematical calculations, and the suitability and classification map of tourism-prone areas in the study area was prepared.
The results obtained from the application of AHP and WLC methods show that suitable places for recreation in the study area are located in its central part; because this part is located at a suitable distance from roads, cities and villages, as well as they have low slope and low altitude. Therefore, the central parts of the study area are highly desirable for recreation activities. In the mentioned analysis, the slope criterion with a weight of 0.32, had the highest weight and was proposed as the first priority in decision. The softer the slope of an area, the easier and safer recreational activities will be and the area will have more potential for ecotourism. However, land use with a weight of 0.22 was in the second priority. In many researches, land use layer has been used as one of the important parameters in locating tourism potential areas. The distance from the village with a weight of 0.15 was in the third priority. One of the reasons for this effect can be to protect residents from the effects of recreation. The fourth priority was the distance from the road with a weight of 0.12. Roads are one of the determining factors in the dynamics and economic growth of different societies and the context of access to different types. The fifth priority is the distance from the rivers, which has a coefficient of 0.1. The expansion and development of population centers has long been formed around the water resources. Therefore, its important and effective role cannot be ignored. The sixth priority is aspects of slops with a coefficient of 0.04. Aspects has been used in many studies as an important criterion in locating tourism. The seventh criterion with a coefficient of 0.04 is allocated to elevation. Elevation above sea level represents the change of climate fluctuations due to the difference in altitude; the amount of energy that each point of the earth receives from the sun is different with increasing altitude, the absolute humidity and temperature and consequently the vegetation period decreases. The last criterion is soil depth, which has a coefficient of 0.02. Soil depth has been used in a number of studies as one of the criteria for locating tourism. The deeper the soil, the more suitable it is for the location of the resort. The final location map of tourism potential created by linear weight combination method showed that the very suitable area has an area of 2336 hectares, 4% of the total area. Suitable area for tourism activities has an area of 11527 hectares, 19% of the total area, somewhat suitable area for tourism activities has an area of 32745 hectares, which covers 54% of the total area and the unsuitable area has an area of 14,320 hectares, which covers 24% of the total study area. Using other decision-making methods such as TOPSIS, ELECTERE, Dematel, ANP, VIKOR, PROMETHEE and SAW methods and compare them with the results of this research is suggested. Moreover, it is suggested to use other data layers for identifying suitable areas for establishing recreation zones in the study area.