عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Aim: In recent decades, one of the most important pillars of health and environment is the management of waste, wastes and wastes, which includes a set of coherent and coordinated regulations in the field of control, production, storage or collection, transportation and Transportation, processing and disposal is one of the most effective methods in managing and neutralizing the adverse effects of waste, converting them into compost and their optimal use as fertilizer in agriculture. Preparation of compost from mixed urban waste, green space waste and waste field waste due to its physical and chemical composition, is an important issue that should be given special attention.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the physical, chemical and microbial properties of compost fertilizer produced from municipal waste are compared with biocompost from urban green space waste and waste fields. Municipal waste compost in Aradkooh processing and disposal complex of Tehran Municipality Waste Management Organization is produced by wind method and biocompost from green space waste in Azadshahr forest park located in district 18 of Tehran municipality by bioreactor method with active aeration.
Conclusion: The quality of municipal waste compost fertilizer produced in Arad Kooh processing and disposal complex of Tehran Waste Management Organization and also biocompost from urban green space waste and waste fields of Tehran metropolitan area which is located in Azadshahr forest park site located in district 18 of municipality. Tehran is produced, it is in the desired level and in all parameters it is in accordance with the limits of the national standard of Iranian compost number 10716, but in general, the physical and chemical properties of biocompost are much better than municipal waste compost.
Irregular population growth, especially in urban areas, population concentration and the wave of consumerism along with the advancement of technology, has led to the rapid production of a wide range of waste in the world, the growth rate of which is increasing dramatically in all countries, including Iran. Be. Certainly, this trend is due to the excessive consumption of natural resources and the withdrawal of millions of tons of materials from the consumption cycle. For this reason, in recent decades, one of the most important pillars of health and the environment is the management of waste, wastes and wastes, which includes a set of coherent and coordinated regulations in the field of control, production, storage or collection, transportation, It is their processing and disposal. According to a comprehensive study by the World Health Organization, not paying attention to the proper collection and disposal of waste can provide 32 environmental problems that can not be easily addressed. Undoubtedly, planning for proper disposal of waste and considering its harmful effects on the environment, in any country is one of the most important and necessary principles in order to ensure the long-term benefits of society and move towards sustainable development. One of the most effective solutions to combat and neutralize the adverse effects of wet waste is to convert it into fertilizer, which not only frees human communities from many of these problems, but also provides benefits and in addition to helping to preserve existing natural resources. , Also brings economic benefits. In this study, the physical, chemical and quality characteristics of compost fertilizer produced from municipal waste are compared with biocompost from urban green space waste and waste fields. Municipal waste compost in Aradkooh processing and disposal complex of Tehran Municipality Waste Management Organization is produced by wind method and biocompost from green space waste in Azadshahr forest park located in district 18 of Tehran municipality by bioreactor method with active aeration.
Physical and chemical analysis and determination of various qualitative factors of samples based on the executive method in accordance with National Standard No. 13320 (Compost - sampling and physical and chemical test methods) and microbial analysis according to National Standard No. 13321 (Compost - Features Microbial and test methods) was done.
Table 1. Some methods of testing fertilizer parameters based on national standards 13320 and 13321
Parameter Test Method
Ash Gravimetry (weight loss in an electric oven with a temperature of 550
Organic materials (OM) OM=100-(Ash+Humidity)
Organic carbon (OC) Walkie-block method
Total nitrogen Kajaldal method
Phosphorus Olsen method
Heavy metals Atomic absorption
Total and fecal coliforms Multi-tube fermentation
Based on statistical calculations, the average concentration of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as the most important nutrients in fertilizer, in urban waste compost, 1.51, 1.12, 0.91, respectively, and in biocompost from urban green space waste and leek fields / 99. 1, 2.05 and 1.33 were measured. The mean pH index in compost was 7.93 and in biocompost was 7.42. The average percentage of organic matter (OM) in municipal waste compost was 41% and in biocompost 69% and the amount of organic carbon (OC) in compost was 25.4% and in biocompost was 39.70%. The average C / N ratio is 19.94 for biocompost and 16.82 for municipal waste compost. The concentrations of lead, zinc and nickel in biocompost are 0.65, 59.50, 11.95 and in municipal waste compost are 71.54, 324.83, 42.26 (mg / kg), respectively.
Arsenic, mercury, cadmium and cobalt were not observed in biocompost samples but their average concentrations were measured in municipal waste compost samples 0.09, 0.14, 6.21, 17.35, respectively. The average concentrations of copper, chromium and molybdenum in biocompost sample were measured 12.32, 5.71, 0.51, respectively, and in municipal waste compost sample were 229.35, 46.29 and 1.23, respectively. Microbial analysis of samples of municipal waste compost and biocompost from green space and leek fields showed that there was no microbial contamination caused by Salmonella and fecal coliform in the manure mass.
Then, examining the results of physical, chemical and microbial analysis, it was found that the quality of municipal waste compost fertilizer produced in Arad Kuh Processing and Disposal Complex of Tehran Waste Management Organization as well as biocompost from urban green space waste and waste fields in Tehran metropolis. At the Azadshahr Forest Park site, located in the 18th district of Tehran Municipality, the production is in the desired level and is in accordance with the limits of the Iranian National Compost Standard No. 10716. In this study, only compost (12 and 24 tons per hectare) was used without adding chemical fertilizer and fertilizer (NPK) to investigate the possible effects of compost on crop yield. Soil pH decreased and SAR decreased due to the acidic effect of compost, acid formation, calcium release and sodium leaching. In EC the soil increased slightly. The amount of all major plant elements (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and the content of organic matter in the soil increased. In this way, composting can improve soil productivity and soil fertility.