عنوان مقاله [English]
Water as one of the sources of life is one of the most important factors of growth and development in human societies. In the last two decades, especially in the late 20th century, water management has become a major international concern. Drought and dehydration in Iran are also a climatic fact, and due to the growing need for different parts of the water, the drought problem will become more acute in the coming years. Water productivity is one of the most important key indicators in large-scale planning related to the supply, allocation and consumption of water. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in water productivity in industrial and agricultural sectors by country's provinces during the implementation of subsidy targeting using Malmquist index. The results indicated that the provinces of Tehran, Kerman and Hormozgan have been inefficient in all three sectors, but overall, the total productivity index has increased in the country.
Undoubtedly, water and energy are one of the most important challenges for the future of human beings and the most productive field of thought of the great theorists of the world. The United Nations estimates that by 2050, the world's population will increase by 2 billion, and by 2030, global water will be 40 percent short. Geographical location, amount of rainfall and temperature conditions have led to the dominance of arid and semi-arid climate in Iran. Investigating the amount of water extracted in the country, population growth, the trend of deforestation and pastures in recent years, excessive and unplanned abstraction of groundwater resources and lack of optimal consumption pattern causes a significant reduction in water resources Has provided the ground for drought in some parts of the country. Drought and water scarcity in Iran is a climatic fact and due to the increasing need of different sectors for water, the problem of drought will become more acute in the coming years. According to the report of the International Institute of Water Management (IWMI, 2007), Iran must be able to add 112% to its extractable water resources to maintain its current status by 2025. Meanwhile, managing water consumption in the agricultural sector, which includes a large part of water consumption in Iran and the world, can be very effective and helpful. It is clear that to achieve this, it is necessary to identify the main indicators of water consumption management and determine this indicator in appropriate ways. Water use efficiency is one of the most important key indicators and basic approaches in macro-planning related to water supply, allocation and principled consumption.
The data envelopment analysis method uses the Malmquist index to calculate productivity changes, which was first proposed in the form of production theory by caves et al. (1982). In 1987, this index was introduced in the framework of the Comprehensive Data Analysis (DEA) method, assuming a constant return to scale (CRS) by Farr et al. (1994). This index is based on the defined distance function and includes the product vector, which is available under fixed technology and using a specific vector of production factors. This function is estimated directly through computer software (DEAP). To break down performance changes into two components, scale efficiency and management efficiency, a technology-constrained constraint with variable returns to scale is added to the model. Technological changes also consist of two components: technological changes and technical efficiency changes. Technological changes also consist of two components: technological changes and technical efficiency changes. Finally, the calculated indicators for each firm are as follows: 1) Total productivity changes (TFPCH) 2) Technical efficiency changes (EFFCH), 3) Technology changes (TECHCH), 4) Management efficiency changes (PECH) 5) Scale efficiency changes (SECH), the relationship between which is as follows (McLaklin et al., 1990). If the value of Malmquist index or any of its components is less than one based on product maximization, it means that the performance of the firm is worse, while if the value of the index is greater than one, it indicates an improvement in the performance of that firm.
Changes in the productivity of all factors of agricultural production during the period under review, is greater than one (1.73) and indicates a positive growth and states that on average in the whole country, the productivity of factors of agricultural production over time It has improved, ie from 1385 to 1399, about 73% of positive productivity growth has been experienced. According to the results presented in the study, the total productivity index of production factors in the agricultural sector is less than one in Tehran, Kerman and Hormozgan provinces only, which indicates a decrease in the performance of these provinces during the study period (2013 - 1385) is. The productivity index of total factors of production in the agricultural sector for other provinces is greater than one, which indicates an increase in performance and improvement of the situation in these provinces. In the industrial sector, as in the agricultural sector, the productivity index of Tehran, Kerman and Hormozgan provinces is less than one, which indicates a decrease in the performance of these provinces during the study period. The efficiency change index of these provinces is less than one, which indicates a decrease in technical efficiency due to management efficiency and scale. Technology efficiency has decreased in all provinces; But overall, the productivity and technical efficiency index of the entire industry sector has increased and technology efficiency has decreased. According to the results of this study, water productivity has increased to some extent during the targeted implementation of subsidies, but still in this regard, according to Madani (2014), reforms such as increasing the price of energy and water carriers along with providing economic incentives for Preventing economic and livelihood damage to farmers in the short term requires the establishment of agricultural management cooperatives in each region and increasing farmers' participation and collective capacity in water and agricultural management. In this regard, in order to prevent further fragmentation of lands, subsidized credits of irrigation systems should be given only to lands covered by a water source (well) and in an integrated manner, and from giving these credits to a part of lands covered by a Water resources should be avoided so that farmers are encouraged to form water cooperatives. Also, the country's water system should be restructured based on multiple goals of coordinated production (irrigated agriculture, rainfed, livestock and aquaculture with a healthy ecosystem) and the required goals, policies and programs should be determined.
Keywords: Water crisis, Water allocation, Resource Efficiency, Malmquist index ,Comprehensive Map.