عنوان مقاله [English]
Lenjan city is the distribution point of Zayandehrud and the management of water and wastewater resources in this city is important due to the presence of water-related industries. In this study, the knowledge and abilities of women in water resources management were examined. This study was a descriptive-analytical study. A questionnaire including 4 sections of demographic questions, knowledge assessment, attitude assessment and performance assessment was designed. 238 questionnaires were randomly distributed in the first half of January 1400. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel and SPSS16 software. The participation rate in answering the questionnaire was less than 50%. Women are well aware of water resources such as wetlands, rivers and groundwater and the concept of per capita consumption, but their knowledge of concepts such as virtual water, water recycling, wastewater treatment and their attitudes and practices showed that their knowledge of the concepts of wastewater. The value of recycled water and the concepts of demand management are weak. Participants' knowledge was moderate and their attitudes and practices were good, but they have little knowledge of water resources management and water recovery strategies. The level of awareness of housewives should be further strengthened compared to other groups.
Due to the importance of water resources management in Lenjan city, it is necessary to use the existing social potentials to increase responsibility, residents' demands to reduce the water resources crisis and reduce people's concerns and help people to cooperate with responsible institutions. To manage water resources, therefore, the present study was designed experimentally.
The purpose of this study is to explain the views, awareness and capabilities of women in water resources management. Zarrinshahr is the center of Lenjan city. Predicting, preventing and dealing with water shortage crisis in Lenjan city requires education and culture of using and improving water consumption pattern, providing solutions to improve consumption pattern in urban housing, agriculture, industry and services. By achieving the contexts and needs of the community and women, it is possible to identify the main axes of educational programs and to direct and organize support programs and empowerments.
This study was a descriptive-analytical study. To achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire designed by the researcher was distributed among women in the target community. This questionnaire consisted of four separate sections. These sections included demographic questions, questions related to measuring awareness, measuring attitude, and measuring performance. Cronbach's alpha test was used to assess the reliability of the present study. The coefficient of this test was determined for the variables. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts in the field of statistics, environment and water, and Cronbach's alpha for knowledge, attitude and practice questions were 78%, 85% and 75%, respectively.
For the present study in the first half of January 1400, the questioner was randomly referred to the door and the questionnaire was given to the female head of the family. She was explained that from each household, only the mother or female head of the household, who is between 20 and 65 years old, should answer the questionnaire, and this woman is required to complete the questionnaire only on the basis of her previous knowledge and refer to references and books. Do not ask for help from others to complete the questionnaire. The women were then given a contact number and an email to send the answers to.
They were given 24 hours to return the questionnaire. 238 questionnaires were distributed among different households in one day, of which 106 questionnaires were returned. The sub-purpose of such a questionnaire distribution was to examine what percentage of women in the statistical population in the present study participate in answering the questionnaire.
In the demographic section, age, occupation, marital status, level of education and home ownership status were asked. In a separate question, the respondent was asked about the main source of information related to water issues. The 12-question awareness section had four options. The correct answer had a score of one. The highest score in this section was 12 points. The sections of measuring attitude and measuring performance each consisted of 12 questions, and 5 options were designed to answer these questions. In the attitude section, the answers included the range of strongly agree, agree, have no opinion, disagree, strongly disagree, and in the action section, the range was always, most of the time, sometimes, rarely, not at all. Scoring was given as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and in case of non-response, the score was zero. Table 1 shows the scoring levels of awareness, attitude and practice.
The rate of women's participation in answering the questionnaire of the present design was 40.57%. Given that the questionnaire was delivered door-to-door and that communication channels were provided in the virtual networks to deliver the answers, it was expected that there would be more participation. The reason for this should be examined, the degree of interest in the subject, concern for environmental issues and the pervasive understanding of the water crisis and the degree of social responsibility of individuals are the presumed reasons for the degree of participation in the response.
According to the results of the present study, women get the most information from television and radio, and there is a positive correlation between job and information source, and employees use more television and radio information.
The level of women's awareness of water resources management was moderate. The results showed that women are well aware of water resources in Iran, for example, valuable wetlands, rivers and groundwater and the concept of per capita consumption, but their knowledge of concepts such as virtual water, water recycling, wastewater treatment is less Is. Therefore, it is necessary to raise awareness about the concepts of water supply and demand management in communities and increase public knowledge. 40-40 year olds and employees and those who were self-employed have more information. The results show that the level of awareness of housewives should be strengthened.
Women whose source of information was books and newspapers were more aware. Content published in books and print media is more scientific and specialized because it goes through a more serious stage of critique and judgment than the oral media, and the audience of books, They are more serious about the subject and refer to the books out of interest and for more specialized information. These results also show that it is necessary for television and radio to take more specialized and appropriate measures in the field of information and raising public awareness.
The prevailing attitude level of women was at a good level. The lowest scores were given to the two categories of comprehensiveness and generality of water issues and the need to strengthen strict laws to penalize water loss. Women's general performance level was assessed as good
The lowest performance score was given to the question that a person does not use drinking water to wash a car. Despite the fact that for many years this issue has been announced in various forms in various media as one of the effective factors in reducing water consumption, but it is still not practically implemented by the people in society. Also, in this section, people performed less to understand the concepts of virtual water and also use the water pressure reducing devices poorly.
Although the level of awareness of the participants in the present study was moderate, their attitudes and performance were assessed as good, but the results of the study showed that these women, despite being aware of water resources and adopting behaviors to reduce water consumption. But they are not aware of water resources management and water recovery strategies, and it is necessary that their attitude towards water resources management issues be expanded and their responsibility be increased and their functional skills be strengthened. Therefore, it is necessary that intervention studies to find a suitable solution and implement those strategies and formulate management models in order to empower women to manage water resources should be a priority for responsible organizations and institutions