عنوان مقاله [English]
Attention Due to the increasing attention to tourism and becoming competitive in the tourism market around the world, tourism destinations are increasingly competing with attracting tourists. Geotourism is a new, dynamic and evolving form of tourism that is mainly influenced by the inherent contexts and attractions of disciplines such as geomorphology, geology, mineralogy, fossilology, caving and other related sciences. It is also influenced by the technical exploration of cultural and historical sites associated with mining activities, the discovery of specific museums in a region, or historical monuments. This study evaluates the geotourism potential and analyzes the competitiveness of the geotouristic areas of the case study (Hir, Khalkhal, Sarein). There are various factors involved in the development of tourism, the absence of some of which poses many challenges to the development of tourism. Accordingly, identifying the factors affecting tourism development is a basic precondition for national planning and development and will play an important role in tourism development in the study areas. The reason for choosing these areas is due to having all three areas with almost similar characteristics of geotouristic attractions and on the other hand having the variables of the models of this research in these areas. According to the fields related to geotourism, it is necessary to define and identify indicators and factors assessing the competitiveness of geotourism in each region so that based on these indicators, the attractiveness and competitiveness of the region can not only be determined but can be compared with other regions and low value. To take on. . Therefore, the first task in this field will be to identify the indicators and determinants of competitiveness of the evaluated areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the geotourism potential and analyze the competitiveness of geotouristic regions of Ardabil province (Case study: Hir, Khalkhal, Sarein).
The study areas are located in Ardabil province. Ardabil province in the northwest of the Iranian plateau, with more than 18 thousand and 50 square kilometers, constitutes about 1% of the country's area. This province is bordered by Aras River, Moghan Plain and Balharud from the north to the Republic of Azerbaijan, from the east to Talesh and Baghro mountains in Gilan province, from the south to interconnected mountains, valleys and plains of Zanjan province and from the west to East Azerbaijan province. it's limited. In this research, 1: 50,000 topographic maps, 1: 100,000 geological maps, as well as GIS software have been used to identify the study areas. Field study This research was conducted in the field and a questionnaire was completed in the spring of 1401. During the field study, in addition to providing images of the geotourist attractions of the study areas, questionnaires were also completed from travelers and tourism experts based on the model items used. Data collection tools are also based on a questionnaire and the number of experts and tourists has been determined using a simple random sampling method and Cochran's formula. The statistical population in this study is travelers and experts who have traveled to the study areas of geotourism, which for each study area was collected using a questionnaire of 70 tourists and 25 experts. A total of 285 questionnaires were completed for the three study areas. The statistical population in this study is travelers and experts who have traveled to the study areas of geotourism, which for each study area was collected using a questionnaire of 70 tourists and 25 experts. A total of 285 questionnaires were completed for the three study areas. Also, to estimate the normality of the data, the data distribution fit was tested using the Smirnov-Nekouei Kolmograph test and was confirmed with a significance (sig) of 0.05. In this research, first, the analysis of the geotourism potential of the mentioned areas is evaluated using the Hadzic model, and in the next stage, using the model of Pavolova et al., The competitiveness of the studied areas is evaluated.
• A: The results of the dynamic model (Hadzic): The results of evaluating the scientific geotouristic value of the regions according to experts show that among the sub-indicators of scientific value in terms of hair, the index showing geomorphological processes with a value of 4.15 and diversity in geomorphological forms with a value of 4.36 has the highest score. And in terms of index, rarity at the national level with a value of 1.69 has the lowest score. In other words, hair is less important in terms of rarity at the national level.
• B: Results of competitiveness of tourist areas: According to the results obtained from field studies and completing the questionnaire, one of the positive factors of competitiveness of geotouristic areas can be the existence of spas and medical facilities in Hir region with a value of 7.44 and also in Sarein region with a natural value factor of 7.44 with the highest competitiveness. Compared to other factors. In the next ranks, Khalkhal geotouristic region has the highest level of competitiveness in terms of the existence of several caves with a value of 6.97. Also, Khalkhal and Sarein areas with (0) have the lowest level of competitiveness in terms of spa and medical facilities, which indicates that there is no spa in these geotouristic areas.
In this research, the geotourism potential and competitiveness of the studied areas (Hir, Khalkhal, Sarein) have been evaluated. Therefore, it is concluded that Sarein tourism region in terms of geotourism potential and competitiveness compared to other studied tourism areas has suitable potentials to attract tourists to Ardabil province. Based on the models used in this study, the views of tourists and experts on the use of tourism potentials in the study areas were evaluated and tourism areas were identified in terms of competitiveness, so Sarein tourism area in terms of competitiveness compared to other study areas suitable potentials To attract tourists to Ardabil province. Finally, the studied geotourist areas due to restrictions such as communication routes, housing and lack of amenities have led to a decrease in tourists in the areas of Hir and Khalkhal. Therefore, it is suggested that in order to increase the necessary awareness to attract domestic and foreign tourists, first infrastructure facilities should be provided and then, using media advertisements, the conditions for attracting tourists to the study areas can be provided.
Keywords: "Geotourism", "Pavolova model", "Dynamic model", "Ardabil province".