عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, increasing car use and dependence on urban environments has created numerous problems such as pollution, traffic, and the wasteful use of fossil fuels. Therefore, identifying the factors affecting the sustainability of urban transportation by emphasizing the green economy and providing appropriate solutions can be fruitful in the sustainability and economic development of cities. Given the importance of this issue, this study seeks to identify the factors affecting sustainable urban transportation.
Ardabil city, as a case study of this research, is the capital of Ardabil province, where a high volume of urban traffic takes place. The high concentration of the service sector in this city increases the volume of urban traffic during the day. This causes traffic, noise pollution and the resulting environment. Restrictions of Ardabil transportation system such as non-overlap of urban lines by various means of public transportation, including taxis and buses, high share of informal passengers in the movement of citizens, unnecessary traffic, insufficient monitoring of transportation systems Increasing the distance between business and non-business trips and the inadequacy of the structure and quality of the road network to facilitate transportation, low use of bicycles in order to achieve clean transportation, insufficient attention to the principle of pedestrian-centered city, etc. Creates a sustainable transportation system in the city of Ardabil.
In this regard, and due to the increasing need for transportation, the creation of a sustainable urban transportation system is of great importance and in this regard, the main purpose of this study is to analyze and identify the components and factors affecting Creating a sustainable transportation system with emphasis on green economy in Ardabil.
This research is descriptive-exploratory in terms of method and applied in terms of purpose. The data required for this research were collected through documentary and field (questionnaire). The statistical population of this research is experts familiar with the subject of Ardabil urban transportation and the theory of green economy. Due to the uncertainty of their number and the ambiguity in their familiarity with the subject of the research, the snowball method was used to identify experts. In this regard, the number of sample experts continued to gain better knowledge and theoretical saturation in the received answers (proximity and repetition of answers), and finally reached 10 people. In this regard, after the initial factors / components were extracted through library studies, the mentioned experts were interviewed, and after summarizing the factors, their content validity was obtained, and finally, a specialized questionnaire on the effectiveness of the factors was opened. It was also evaluated by the same 10 relevant experts. It should be noted that content validity (CVR) method was used for research instrument validity, retest method for its reliability and structural-interpretive modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis were used for data analysis.
The conclusion is that overcoming the issues and problems caused by transportation and finally achieving stability, requires identifying the factors that affect it. For this reason, the interpretive structural research model seemed useful due to the use of expert opinions and its desirable content validity, because it can reduce the complexity of the subject and an acceptable understanding of the subject by specifying the priority. lead us to make better decisions.
In this research, based on this research logic, we tried to identify the most important factors affecting sustainable urban transportation in Ardabil and to analyze the impact of each of them on each other. In this regard, the results showed that among the 37 factors initially identified, 12 factors (safety factors, development of non-motorized transport, motor vehicle travel, access to transportation services and energy efficiency, social livability and air pollution The quality of planning, transportation culture, transportation costs, electronic communications and smart tools and equipment) were recognized as the final factors affecting sustainable urban transportation, and among these, the most power to influence factors. The quality of planning and intelligent tools and equipment, and the least of which is related to security factors, community viability and air pollution. But in this regard, what is important is to achieve a combination of influential variables.
The results of factor leveling also showed that the factors affecting sustainable urban transportation in Ardabil can be classified into four levels. Electronic communications, smart tools and equipment, transportation culture, access to transportation services and motorized travel are at the lowest level and act as the foundation stones of the model, in a way that identifies Factors affecting sustainable urban transportation in Ardabil should start from this level or factors. Because these factors have the greatest impact on other factors and are at the highest level (first level), security factors, community viability and air pollution. These factors have less provocative power and more dependence. In fact, these factors are less effective but more effective.
The results of factor classification also showed that security factors, development of non-motorized transportation, travel of motor vehicles, access to transportation services and energy efficiency have a weak influence and dependence. In contrast, socially viable factors and air pollution are more affected by other factors and are systemically effective and dependent elements, and finally, the quality of planning, transportation culture, transportation costs, electronic communications and Intelligent tools and equipment are key factors in sustainable urban transportation. These factors, which have high penetration and low dependence, can have the greatest impact on the sustainability of urban transportation. These factors act as the structural cornerstone of the system and in order to fundamentally change the performance of the system, they must be emphasized in the first place.
Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that the sustainability of urban transportation from the perspective of green economy, to the key factors of planning quality, transportation culture from a social dimension, transportation costs from the dimension The economy and electronic communications and smart tools and equipment depend a lot on the smart city dimension. In emphasizing these factors, we should not ignore other factors raised in the present study.
In general, the factors are systematically related to each other and in terms of hierarchy (priorities and levels obtained) the factor of the population having the Internet to improve the transport culture and also use the credit card system instead of preparing and buying Tickets, installation of smart cameras and installation of traffic signs will provide the transportation system. Will be effective (fourth level). The set of factors mentioned in a way indicates the existence of the program in the field of transportation and the continuity of acceptance and comprehensiveness of the planning that will lead to the development of non-motorized transportation, ie walking or cycling (third level). When the measures are on schedule, the costs will certainly be reduced (costs of accidents, road network, parking and other traffic services paid by private car users, families) and the efficiency will be increased (level Second). When renewable energy is used, the amount of pollution will definitely decrease and security will increase, and finally we will see the viability of the community and the stability of the city in the field of transportation (first level).