عنوان مقاله [English]
Like it or not, we live in a society full of disposable products, and it's not just paper products and fast food containers that we throw away. We use televisions, computers, mobile phones, clothes and other products until something better comes along and then we throw them away. The earth is full of garbage that we create everywhere (Solomon, 2012). Therefore, the increase in the amount of waste along with the lack of space to empty it has polluted all the cities of Iran and the world (Kordi, et al., 2008). But what if people could find someone to take their old junk off their hands? Or what if people can find a needed sex that someone else has thrown away? It is better to know that Freecycle responds to this need. This website was created as a recycling concept, to reduce the pressure on the earth and reduce the generation of consumer waste. This site, which uses a forum structure, works well because of its simplicity. This site connects people who have items to throw away with people who need them and vice versa. Since the start of this site in Tucson, Arizona in 2003, today there are millions of members who have formed thousands of user communities in more than 75 countries. They say that they change the world with their every gift. This site is one of the most popular non-profit sites in cyberspace, and this reputation has been achieved within a few short years, without using any advertising other than word of mouth or free advertising. Anyone can join this 24/7 virtual garage sale and membership is free. In fact, the basic rule of Freecycle is that you can only give things away for free. Sellers and receivers contact each other via email and then arrange to send or receive in person. The founder of the site estimates that an average item on the Freecycle site weighs about one pound, which means that Freecycle's daily movement prevents 300 tons of waste. Therefore, Freecycle has created another cycling option that is growing rapidly and can also affect the buying habits of consumers (Solomon, 2012). Therefore, the present researchers decided that due to the large volume of waste in Iran and the lack of waste management and the principled and engineering method of waste disposal in all regions of the country, and as a result, serious damage to the environment and the health of people who live in the waste dumping areas. , examine the challenges facing the flow of "free-cycling" in Iran, as a method of recycling second-hand goods that can be used in various matters, in order to reduce the amount of waste. Because free-cycling is the previous and the first step in relation to waste and is the so-called prerequisite for the rest of the methods (separation, burial, burning, etc.); Because the amount of existing waste should be reduced first, and then destruction or recycling engineering methods should be used for the amount of waste created.
The current research is a qualitative type of research, in which, using in-depth interviews in WhatsApp and content analysis approach, the basic issues and challenges facing free cycling in Iran, from the point of view of 4 marketing experts and also 3 environmental experts, were analyzed. Along with the theoretical review of the findings of the researchers and the opinion of the freecyclists of the countries that are active in the freecycle course, they were found.
The findings in five main areas include "1. Issues related to the structure of Freecycle (including: Freecycle rules, the support provided by Freecycle, the uses of items donated in Freecycle); 2. supports that are better or necessary from the government, companies and organizations and product designers; 3. Issues related to free cycle users or free cyclers (including: motivations and behavior of gift givers and gift recipients); 4. Challenges related to people in the society (their point of view towards free-cycle and participation in it, culture-building of free-cycle); 5. Free cycle effects (including: environmental effects and social effects)" were categorized.
Nowadays, it is not enough to imagine that products have only one owner in their whole life and then they go away and become waste and disappear; On the other hand, because without considering the key and fundamental role of urban waste producers, i.e. citizens, all solutions will fail, and without their participation, there will be no change in the amount of waste produced daily; Following such a problem, in recent years, with the participation of citizens, efforts have been made to manage waste, and measures such as collecting wet and dry waste in separate bins, clean neighborhood plan, collection program Smart collection of waste and other such cases have been implemented, and according to the experts interviewed in this research, while achieving relative success, they have also faced major failures, and the reason for them, in addition to the lack of correct science and knowledge, lack of investment from the government; Because they believed that, for example, in all provinces and cities of Iran, there are no waste recycling factories and equipment, and there are no engineering methods for burial and disposal, and there are not enough facilities to transfer waste from all parts of the country to places with existing equipment. There is no, or in some areas, a garbage truck transports wet and dry garbage at the same time, and practically, the separation of wet and dry garbage has been useless, and the environmental damage is still strong. In this regard, considering that the basic rule and law of Freecycle is that the providers offer their goods only for free to the receivers and in no way have the right to sell and earn profit from them or even They do not have barter; on the other hand, the receivers must really need the goods and not intend to sell or abuse them. Therefore, the providers should be able to donate their extra items to others with different motivations and non-economic goals and without obtaining financial profit, and the receivers should not have the intention of abusing and demand the received goods only to satisfy their needs. Of course, if Be careful in the interactions of the Iranian society, the act of free cycling and donating goods and even financial aid has existed informally in Iran since the beginning, and members of the society often donate their second-hand goods or new goods to others (generally relatives). or acquaintances, but the main purpose of Free Cycle is to prevent some people from buying goods (on the one hand), and throwing away the same goods used by some people (on the other hand), by connecting these two group of people to each other, whether the recipient has purchasing power or not; Of course, gift givers usually choose the recipient of their goods based on various criteria and usually try to choose the person who needs the goods most and most vitally among the applicants. In addition, it is necessary that the government, while officially accepting Freecycle, by setting special tariffs for the transfer of items that need to be sent and received in absentia and through mail, as well as programs to encourage people in the community to join Freecycle, and Of course, technical and financial support for the website and its networks, participate in this movement. Finally, due to the fact that Iran is one of the Islamic countries and in its religious teachings, the virtue of forgiveness and gifts is highly recommended, and its people are also in different and sensitive crises and situations (such as floods, earthquakes, etc.), the desire They have proven themselves to help their fellow citizens, so it is expected that Freecycle will be well received.