عنوان مقاله [English]
In the field of regional economy, due to the limited resources available, recognizing the economic characteristics and advantages of each region, provides the possibility of better planning to achieve development goals. The economy of a region mainly depends on the strength and weakness of the various economic sectors in it, the dynamics of the industrial structure and the unique factors of the region. The economy of a region usually develops when parts of the region develop over time. Because we are always faced with limited resources in the economy; Knowing the characteristics and economic advantages of each region allows better and smart planning to achieve development goals. Today, however, attention to macro-policies in regional policy-making is accepted as a principle; But this does not mean that what is appropriate at the national level will be useful for all provinces and regions. Failure to pay attention to this point, ie ignoring the talents, abilities and comparative advantages of each region in the field of economic activities, has caused investments not to be commensurate with the potential facilities and capacities, despite the implementation of the program. Of national development, the trend of underdevelopment has continued in some areas, which has caused a gap between different regions of the country in terms of production and employment. Despite having rich natural resources, climatic diversity, abundant water, vast plains, young labor force, abundant tourism capabilities, the northwestern provinces of Iran in recent years have not been able to do as they should and perhaps in proportion to their capabilities. 'S opportunities to gain a fair share of the national economy; So that the share of East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan provinces in GDP in 2018 was 3.4, 2, 0.9 and 0.9 percent, respectively, which is proportional to the capacity of these provinces in creating added value. is not. East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan provinces in 2018 experienced unemployment rates of 10.9, 14.7, 9.3 and 8.5 percent, respectively, which among Zanjan province with 0.9 shares Of the value added, it has an unemployment rate of 8.5 percent, which has had the best performance among other provinces.
The present study is applied research in terms of purpose and analytical-descriptive research in terms of information analysis. The required statistical data have been collected from the statistical yearbooks section of the Statistics Center of Iran using the library method. The statistical population of this study is the northwestern provinces (East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan) in 2014, 2016 and 2018. The measurement tools of the present study are the basic economy model and spatial coefficient index and the share change model. If the spatial coefficient is greater than one, the province has more production expertise in the activity in question than the whole country, and that activity is considered as a basic activity. If it is equal to one, the production expertise of the province and the country in the desired activity is the same and the province is self-sufficient. If it is less than one, the province has less production expertise in the activity in question than the whole country, and the activity is considered a non-basic activity. Share change model with three elements, total growth of the reference economy (A), relative growth of economic sectors in the total reference economy (B) and the performance of each sector in the province relative to the performance of each sector in the province relative to the performance of the same sector at the reference level (C) The method of change of share is one of the applied methods in regional sciences, which is used to understand the imbalance at the regional level and based on comparing changes at two different levels. It is based on the idea that it evaluates growth differences and inequalities in each region with a larger average level. This difference, which may be positive or negative, indicates a shift or shift in the share of the province's economy in the reference economy.
The variables of this research based on different economic sectors are considered as follows. Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, mining, industry, electricity supply, steam and air conditioning, water supply, waste management, wastewater and treatment activities, buildings, wholesale, retail, vehicle and commodity repair, transportation, warehousing And post, service activities related to accommodation and food, information and communication, service activities related to financial and insurance activities,
Real estate, professional and scientific activities, administrative activities and support services,
Office of Public Affairs and Urban Services, education, human health and social work activities, arts, entertainment, recreation and other services.
The results show that the share of value added of industry in East Azerbaijan province has increased during the studied years. The sector of professional and scientific activities as a sector in which the province of West Azerbaijan has a comparative advantage has gone up in the studied years. In Ardabil province, the share of agriculture as a sector with comparative advantage has been declining during the years under study. In Zanjan province, the sector with comparative advantage has changed during the studied years. According to the above results, it can be said that provincial officials need to be in accordance with development programs that emphasize the spatial organization and geographical distribution of population and activities, commensurate with the comparative advantages of each region; By identifying the basics and activities that have a comparative advantage, adopt their own strategies and policies that prioritize investment in core and core activities; So that supportive policies to achieve economic growth in the regions to be directed to these activities. Considering that East Azerbaijan province has a comparative advantage in the industrial sector of West Azerbaijan in the field of professional and scientific activities, Ardabil province in the field of agriculture and Zanjan province in the field of agriculture and industry, so it is necessary for provincial officials to pay attention to these sectors. It is necessary for provincial officials in accordance with development plans that emphasize the spatial organization and geographical distribution of population and activities in proportion to the comparative advantages of each region; By identifying the basics and activities that have a comparative advantage, adopt their own strategies and policies that prioritize investment in core and core activities; So that supportive policies to achieve economic growth in the regions are directed to these activities. Considering that East Azerbaijan province has a comparative advantage in the industrial sector of West Azerbaijan in the sector of professional and scientific activities, Ardabil province in the agricultural sector and Zanjan province in the sector of agriculture and industry, so it is necessary for provincial officials to pay attention to these sectors.