عنوان مقاله [English]
Noise pollution can be found today in most urban and industrial areas of cities, which has many effects on hearing, emotions, psyche and human body, and its high level can cause serious damage to the health of the individual and society. The city of Ardabil is not free from this problem and noise pollution can be seen in the crowded and busy squares and intersections of the city. These squares and intersections have not been studied as they should be and perhaps from the angle of noise pollution in order to pay attention to specific reactions in proportion to the load of noise pollution and the reflection of its effects. Therefore, in the present study, the situation of noise pollution in crowded and busy intersections and intersections of Ardabil city in the distance between Tazeh Maidan and Sarein station has been investigated. According to the issues raised, the present study seeks to answer the question of what is the situation of noise pollution in squares and busy intersections of Ardabil city (fresh distance from the square to Sarein station)?
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of research method. The required information has been collected in the form of field studies and the use of questionnaires, interviews, observations and library-documentary studies according to the nature of the problem and the purpose of the research. The statistical population of the study consists of the citizens of Ardabil, which has 525,702 people, of which 382 people were selected as a sample based on the Cochran's formula. In order to increase the accuracy of the work, a total of 420 questionnaires were distributed and completed by stratified random sampling method (70 questionnaires for each of the selected fields). The results of calculating the Cronbach's alpha test for the questionnaire were 0.823, which indicates the high reliability of the research tool.All steps of data processing were performed with Excel and SPSS software and finally to prioritize the studied fields in terms of noise pollution from The COPRAS multi-criteria decision model is used.
Multi-criteria decision models (MCDMs), sometimes called multi-objective decision models and multi-criteria analysis models, are actually a set of methods that allow decision makers to consider A set of criteria (often contradictory) to select, rank, sort, or describe a set of options in the decision-making process .Many models have been proposed for multi-criteria decisions, each of which has advantages and limitations (Poor Taheri, 1392: 37). The most important features of Coopras multi-criteria decision model compared to other multi-criteria decision models can be mentioned as follows:
1- It is clear that this model is simpler than other models such as AHP and TOPSIS and requires less time for calculations compared to these methods.
2. Coopers can provide a complete ranking of options.
3- This model is able to use both quantitative and qualitative criteria to calculate the criteria.
4. Coopers has the ability to calculate positive (maximum) and negative (minimum) criteria separately in the evaluation process.
5. Another important feature that makes the Coopras decision model superior to other decision models is that it can estimate the degree of importance of each option and show it by percentage to what extent a better option or It is worse and in this respect to make a complete comparison between the options.
The following is a calculation of the Coopras model.
Step 1: Form the initial matrix
After determining the weight of the criteria, the decision matrix is formed as the first step of the Coopers model. The decision matrix means that the options are on one side of the matrix and the criteria are on the other.
Step 2: Form a collective decision matrix
In this step, the respondents' opinions are aggregated using the arithmetic mean.
Step 3: Formation of normalized (weighted) matrix
To weight the decision matrix, using Equation (1), the values of each option are multiplied by their weight and divided by the sum of the values.
Relationship (1): dij =
In this formula, qi is the weight of the i index and xij is the value of each option per criterion:
Step 4: Calculate the value of positive and negative criteria (Sj- & Sj-)
In this step, we calculate the positive sj + criteria using Equation (2) and the negative sj- criteria using Equation (3). A positive or consistent criterion is a criterion that, as its value increases, its desirability increases, but for negative criteria, the desirability decreases as the value increases. After determining the positive and negative criteria, the final value of the positive and negative criteria should be calculated using equations (2) and (3).
Relationship (2): Sj+
Relationship (3): Sj-
Step 5: Calculate the final value of the options (Q value)
In this step, the final value of each option (Q) is calculated. In this section, first 1 is divided by Sj and then according to Equation (4), the value of Q is calculated for each option, in which the value of Q indicates the value and importance of each option in terms of criteria.
Step 6: Determine the desirability of the options
Finally, using Equation (5), the option with a degree of desirability close to one is the best option. That is, it is enough to divide the number Q among the numbers obtained in the previous step by the maximum Q. The total value of each criterion varies from 0 to 100% and the best and worst option is determined among this range.
In this study, in order to evaluate the situation of noise pollution in busy squares and intersections of Ardabil city, a 5-point Likert scale was used and ranks 1 to 5 were assigned to the answers, score 1 indicates the lowest quality and score 5 indicates The highest quality is the relevant criterion. Thus, the number 3 is considered as the theoretical median of the answers and the average obtained from the noise pollution situation is compared with the number 3. Based on the results of statistical calculations, the highest amount of noise pollution is related to the market with an average (4.476) and the lowest amount of noise pollution is related to Sarein station with an average (3.573). The average of total noise pollution is also higher than the average (3). In the Coopers model, the option that has the best status in terms of criteria is identified with the highest degree of Nj importance, which is equal to 100%; As can be seen in Table 2, Sarein station with Nj 100 has the lowest amount of noise pollution and in the best condition and market intersection with Nj 386/80 has the most noise pollution and in the most unfavorable condition compared to other squares and intersections has been studied. Among the studied variables, the variable related to the amount of noise caused by the activities of businesses and street vendors in the market area has had the greatest impact on increasing the amount of noise pollution at this intersection.
Noise pollution ; Urban environment ; COPRAS; Ardabil city