ارزیابی رفتار محیط زیستی گردشگران منطقه حفاظت شده میانکاله بهشهر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی،دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

2 گروه مرتعداری. دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

برخی از مشکلات محیط زیستی هر منظقه‌ای متاثر از رفتارهای گردشگران می‌باشد و برای رفع این مشکلات نیاز است عوامل تاثیرگذار بر رفتار محیط زیستی شناسایی شوند. در این راستا تحقیق حاضر به بررسی رابطه بین متغیرهای دانش، نگرش و درک با متغیر رفتار محیط زیستی در منطقه گردشگری میانکاله بهشهر پرداخته است. روش پژوهش پیمایشی بوده و ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات بصورت پرسشنامه می‌باشد. سوالات پرسشنامه بر اساس طیف پنج گزینه‌ای لیکرت طراحی شده‌اند و که پایایی آن از طریق آزمون آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه شد. جامعه آماری منطقه میانکاله شامل 340 نفر بازدیدکننده بوده است که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران ، حجم نمونه 181 نفر تعیین شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم افزارهای Smart-PLS و SPSS صورت گرفت. یافته‌های حاصل از مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری نشان داد که بین متغیرهای مستقل دانش، نگرش و درک با متغیر وابسته رفتار محیط زیستی رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. متغیر درک با ضریب مسیر 814/0 بر رفتار محیط زیستی بیشترین تاثیر مستقیم را داشته و ضریب مسیر دو متغیر نگرش و دانش به ترتیب 329/0 و 467/0 بدست آمد. نتایج آزمون همبستگی نشان داد که بین دانش، نگرش و درک محیط زیستی با رفتار محیط زیستی همبستگی مثبت و معنی دار وجود دارد که در بین سه متغیر مورد بررسی درک با ضریب همبستگی 455/0 بیشترین همبستگی را با رفتار محیط زیستی دارا می باشد. ضریب همبستگی برای دو متغیر دانش و نگرش به ترتیب 209/0 و 237/0 گزارش شده است. در یک نتیجه کلی می‌توان گفت متغیرهای بررسی شده، رفتارهای مسوولانه محیط زیستی را تقویت می‌کنند و مسئولیت در قبال محیط زیست را ترویج می‌دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment tourists’ environmental behavior in the protected area of Miankaleh Behshahr

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh montazeri 1
  • reza tamartash 2
  • mohamadreza tatian 2
  • ghodratollah heydari 2
1 Department of Rand management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
2 Department of Range Management, Faculty of Natural Resources. University of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Some of the environmental problems in each region are affected by the tourist’s behaviors, and to solve these problems, it is necessary to identify the factors that affect the environmental behavior. In this regard, the present study investigates the relationship between the variables of knowledge, attitude and perception with the variable of environmental behavior in the Miankaleh area of Behshahr. The research method is survey and the data collection tool is a questionnaire. The questionnaire questions were designed based on the Likert scale of five options and its reliability was calculated through Cronbach's alpha test. The statistical population of Miankaleh region included 340 visitors, which was determined using Cochran formula, the sample size was 181 people. Data analysis was performed using Smart-PLS and SPSS software. Findings from structural equation modeling in Miankaleh region showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the independent variables of knowledge, attitude and perception with the dependent variable of environmental behavior. Perception variable with a path coefficient of 0.814 had the most direct effect on environmental behavior and the path coefficient of two variables of attitude and knowledge were 0.329 and 0.467, respectively. The results of correlation test showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between environmental knowledge, attitude and perception with environmental behavior, which among the three variables studied, perception with a correlation coefficient of 0.455 has the highest correlation with environmental behavior. For two variables, knowledge and attitude were obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.209 and 0.237, respectively. In general, it can be said that the studied variables reinforce environmentally responsible behaviors and promote responsibility towards the environment.
Introduction
Human misuse of nature and its resources has caused many natural ecosystems to face many environmental problems, including climate change, drought, soil erosion, degradation of wildlife habitats, biodiversity loss, and vegetation loss. has done. To solve these problems, various solutions were proposed, most of which were technological, but today, due to the high cost of these methods, researchers have turned to changing people's lifestyles and behavioral solutions. In the present century, environmental behaviors as one of the most important and influential factors on the environment have been considered by many environmental sociologists.Many scientists believe that the solution to environmental crises should be sought in changing human behavior, attitudes and lifestyles.
In this study, the results of determining the effect of variables affecting the environmental behaviors of tourists in the Miankaleh region presented. Also, to improve the behavior of tourists, it is necessary to know the effective factors and variables in this field. After reviewing the literature review and the planned behavior model of Ajzen & Fishbein research, the conceptual model of the research was presented. Then, the relationships between four latent Variable (knowledge variables, attitudes and perceptions, environmental behavior) and 32 observed variable were examined to determine the existence or non-existence of a relationship between them.

Methodology
The research method is survey and the data collection tool is a questionnaire. The questionnaire questions were designed based on the Likert scale of five options and its reliability was calculated through Cronbach's alpha test. The statistical population of Miankaleh region included 340 visitors, which was determined using Cochran formula, the sample size was 181 people.
Data analysis was performed using Smart-PLS and SPSS software. To test the conceptual model as well as the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling based on the partial least squares method has been used. Smart PLS3 software was used for this purpose. Structural equation modeling is a technique for analyzing data that is designed to evaluate the relationships between two types of variables (observed and latent variables). A very valuable feature of the structural equation model is the simultaneous analysis and processing of relationships between model variables

Results
The difference between the mean gender and environmental behavior is given in Table (2). The value of t is equal to 4.2. Therefore, there is a significant relationship between gender and environmental behavior of tourists in Miankaleh region at the level of one percent. But there was no significant difference between marital status and environmental behavior. The data of the results related to the analysis of variance test between education level and environmental behavior showed that there is a significant difference at the level of one percent (Table 4).
According to the presented results from structural equation modeling in Miankaleh region showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the independent variables of knowledge, attitude and perception with the dependent variable of environmental behavior. Perception variable with a path coefficient of 0.814 had the most direct effect on environmental behavior and the path coefficient of two variables of attitude and knowledge were 0.329 and 0.467, respectively.
The results of correlation test showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between environmental knowledge, attitude and perception with environmental behavior, which among the three variables studied, perception with a correlation coefficient of 0.455 has the highest correlation with environmental behavior. For two variables, knowledge and attitude were obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.209 and 0.237, respectively. In general, it can be said that the studied variables reinforce environmentally responsible behaviors and promote responsibility towards the environment

Conclusion
The findings of this study confirm the theoretical framework. Based on these findings, the variables of knowledge, attitude and perception have a significant relationship with environmental behavior. The results obtained from the environmental behavior regression model show that environmental perception explains a greater share of behavior changes. This shows that in society, plays an important role in environmental behavior. As a result, in order to improve pro-environmental behavior, it is necessary to shift people's perception towards naturalism and improve the quality of environmental education. Environmental education is one of the most important ways to change the variables affecting environmental behavior. In this way, education by promoting environmental knowledge in society and creating a positive attitude in individuals causes each individual to consider themselves responsible for protecting the environment and strive to improve and sustain the environment.

Keywords: Environmental knowledge, environmental attitude, environmental perception, structural equation modeling, Smart PLS.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Environmental knowledge"
  • "Environmental Attitude"
  • "environmental perception"
  • "Structural Equation Modeling"
  • "Smart PLS"