عنوان مقاله [English]
In general, most problem-solving methods are designed to define the problem. However, most of these methods and models ultimately lead to a complex and ambiguous dichotomy: the simultaneous attempt to recognize the problem and solve it. Without a complete understanding of a problem, it seems impossible to solve it. Therefore, it can be said that the primary goal of planning in architecture is: "Gaining enough information to create clarity, understanding and problem-solving in architecture." On the other hand, today, the position of research in its interaction with the teaching of architecture is a matter of concern. At the same time, in the process of architectural design, this category has been neglected and has been tolerated. Therefore, this article considers the study of models and methods of "research-oriented design" architecture and their structural analysis. The research method of the present article is descriptive-analytical with data collection tools, including library and documentary studies. The present study's findings show that the existence of a relationship between the acquisition and use of information is necessary to create a dynamic interaction between theory and practice. This interaction is central to understanding research information and its proper application; If the literature models of the research are considered to have two key roles: "creating criteria for evaluating the idea"; And "Creating general principles for use during design." The evaluation phase after the construction phase can also be used in the research. The proposed models are presented in four stages: "problem recognition," "idea production," "idea analysis," and "design solution design."». Finally, a comparative analysis of research-based design models and methods (test idea model, analysis and composition model, experimental model, logical model, associative model) is presented.
Annually, heavy metal pollution is increasing in the environment and this eventually causes serious hazards for health of human, animal and plant populations. Heavy metals with their harmful effects are the major pollutants in big cities.
Tehran is a big city and faced with this problem. Heavy metals such as arsenic, iron, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese and nickel exist in the air of Tehran. These polluteants are inhaled by inhabitants and cause serious problems for human body. Among streets, roads and highways of the city, Enqelab Street is one of the busiest and particularly from Enqelab Square to Imam Hossein Square.
In this study, the results of measuring heavy metals including arsenic, iron, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese and nickel in the air of the streetare presented with the health risk assessment from permanent and temporary residents in thearea.
Moreover, the risk of developing cancer and non-cancer diseases caused by inhaling the polluted air with heavy metals was also estimated.
Methodology (Times New Roman, 12 Bold)
The research method of the present article is descriptive-analytical, and according to its theoretical nature, it seeks to study the relationship between research-oriented and architectural design in the theoretical dimensions of theoretical methods and models of architectural design. Data collection tools, including library and documentary studies, have also been used to collect information and research documents.
Any normative design theory can be scientific or even quasi-scientific, but it means that despite all the problems, the positions of designers can be studied, described and scientifically explained. Formulating a clear and solid knowledge of normative stances enables designers to understand the designed self, attitudes, and practices, thus clarifying the potential normative roles and positions. The self-conscious design of the built environment depends on several factors. The need for professional designers to shape values to achieve unique ideas is one of these factors. The ability to do this depends not only on the knowledge and skills of the designers, but also on the job market. Profit and loss processes, supply and demand, cost and revenue, and commercial and administrative laws affect urban design and architecture. Likewise, the available technological features also affect the form of the built environment. Some architects use new technologies in their work, but others have remained in the construction profession; Therefore, "theoretical foundations" in architectural design include two types of theory and model.
Conclusion (Times New Roman, 12 Bold)
Based on what has been said about design methods and their theoretical foundations, What is almost accepted is that there is no consistent procedure in architectural design based on various patterns and methods, which in reflection with the concept of research-based design models, also has various challenges. Although the use of design models or selected methods in designing works in the field of internal validity (homogeneity of works and their design process) is significant, but can not be compared in binary other than design models' relative superiority to any of the models or methods.
The multiple points, the subject of "architect-centered" in contrast to "audience-oriented or client-centered" based on the discussion in "normative and positive design theories" based on the principles of "lang" in the glorious book "Creation of architectural theories" Is. In general, it can be said that architects and designers did not pay much attention to the type of design process or consciously followed a method or model. However, the differences have been vast and significant in choosing the design model (idea-test, experimental, analysis, logical and Associative).
Models of analysis and composition (analysis and composition) and logical activity combined with the preparation of models are different. That is due to their focus on the site to generate ideas for the experimental model, the intended use of experience to generate unique ideas. It is unique. The nature of all the above models can be distinguished into two categories: "design-oriented" and "program-oriented"; As the model of the idea of the test of the design-oriented model, the model of analysis and composition of the program-oriented model, the experimental model of the design-oriented model and the logical model of the program-oriented model are assumed. The thinking process is more based on the "flow of ideas, flexibility, initiative and improvement of ideas" in test and experimental idea models and more on "real and practical adaptability, axial program design, reconstruction" in more analysis and synthesis models. The program will precede the design, and the ideas will be compatible with the program's design and essential elements.
Regarding the design process, it can be said that the models of test and experimental ideas are semi-individual and, to some extent, based on cognitive and survey analysis of the problem. The analysis, composition, and logic models will be more based on cognitive analysis. The associative model is also purely individual and based on the mind of the designer and architect.
Keywords (Times New Roman, 12 Bold)
"Architectural Design," "Design Models and Methods," "Sustainable Design," "Research-Based Design"