عنوان مقاله [English]
The intense emission of carbon dioxide, global warming and the resulting climate change is causing serious crises in the world that it is necessary to identify factors affecting dissemination, scientific studies and practical measures to be. In this context, the present study examines factors affecting the emission of carbon dioxide and its causal relationship between economic growth, energy, free trade and urbanization with co-integration and Granger causality has been in the data panel. Required data was used in the years 1990-2014 for the countries of the MENA region. Results Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis is approved in these countries. The results also show that causality short side panel of economic growth, energy, free trade and urbanization to the carbon dioxide emissions and error correction ECM shows that long-term mitigation potential of environmental pollution by controlling variables in the short run there. In this regard, a clean energy policy is strongly recommended to reduce the burden of fossil fuel pollution as the most important source of energy in these countries. Also, increasing the efficiency of energy consumption can also help reduce pollution caused by it.