عنوان مقاله [English]
The elderly, as part of the urban population, are deprived of mobility and mobility in the city and easy access to urban spaces due to their physical disabilities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of urban viability on elderly elderly mayors in the city of Babol. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. In order to collect the required data for the research, two methods of document analysis and survey have been used. The research tool is a questionnaire. The statistical population of the study is the residents of the elderly (60 years and older) in Babol with a population of 30718 people, of which 384 people have been selected as the sample size. Based on the documentary results, research indicators in the field of urban living include identity and sense of place, security, participation, public education, recreation and leisure, economy and employment, housing, transportation, infrastructure services, green space, urban furniture The quality of urban sidewalks, pollution, landscape, physical dimensions of urban health, psychological dimensions of urban health, social dimensions of urban health, health facilities - and the characteristics of an elderly friendly city including public spaces and buildings , Transportation, housing, social participation, honoring and socializing the elderly, civic participation and employment, communications and information, and health. Their relationship has been analyzed using single-sample t-ammons, Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression. The results showed that the status of urban and urban-friendly indicators of elderly people in the city of Babel are unfavorable. There is also a weak to moderate relationship between urban and urban friendliness indices. The results of multivariate regression also show the moderate and significant effect of viability on the elderly-friendly municipal variable. Among the indicators of viability, facilities and infrastructure services (0.233), transportation (0.215), recreation and leisure (0.183), respectively, have the greatest impact on the elderly mayor.
The 21st century is the century of urbanization of the world. A phenomenon that has affected the economic and social transformation of most cities in the world (Nazmfar et al., 1397: 1). The urbanization trend has been very intense since the last century and has been accompanied by an annual growth of 3.5% (Pacion, 2009: 148). The increase in population, along with the increasing proportion of urbanization and the continuation of this growth, has detrimental consequences and problems for cities, so that the concerns of any community to reduce these issues and meet the needs (housing, energy, water and food) , Wastewater and waste management, health, public safety, education, interaction and social justice, economic activities), which is solved by serving the people and residents (Saberi et al., 1398: 412). In the meantime, livability or livable city, as one of the important approaches in the whole world and consequently in Iran, has found its place in the urban planning literature. Viability can be defined by the quality of the relationship between the individual and the environment or the extent to which a place and the services available in it can meet the needs and expectations of residents (Mouratidis, 2020: 266 ). One of the emerging and controversial phenomena that can be mentioned as one of the most important criteria for measuring social justice in any society. It is a matter of aging or some kind of population aging. It is a matter of aging or a kind of aging of the population, which in our country is one of the new and ongoing issues for the next few years, which we are in the early stages of today. It can be said that one of the important goals of urban development planning is to increase the level of livability of urban spaces and the criterion of livability of urban spaces is the presence of all citizens along with special social groups. The elderly are one of this group. They are social groups that with their presence can cause the stability and vitality of urban spaces and as a result improve the quality of these spaces (Forouzandeh and Mansour Hosseini, 1396: 62). ). In this regard, the World Health Organization launched the Elderly Friendly Municipality in 2007 with the aim of highlighting the importance and a fundamental and comprehensive approach in creating enabling environments for the elderly (del Barrio et al, 2021: 2) and making it an important factor in the design. Has introduced and expanded to more than a thousand cities and communities around the world. Population aging is occurring in all countries of the world and raises major issues in the direction of health and social policies. (Boilard et el, 2021: 2) According to the approach of the World Health Organization, elderly-friendly cities include It is those urban spaces that the distribution of public services is commensurate with the needs and limitations of the elderly .
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of urban viability on the elderly friendly city of Babylon. First, appropriate indicators have been developed by reviewing researches related to livability and elderly friendliness. Indicators of urban livability including identity and sense of place, personal and social security, participation, public education, recreation and leisure, economy and employment, housing, transportation, infrastructure facilities and services, public green space, urban furniture, quality Urban sidewalk, Pollution, landscape, physical dimensions of urban health, mental dimensions of urban health, social dimensions of urban health, health facilities, and the characteristics of an elderly-friendly city include public spaces and buildings, urban transportation, housing, Social participation, honoring and socializing the elderly, civic participation and employment, communication and information, and health. The statistical population of this study is elderly residents (60 years and older) in Babol. According to the population of 30718 people, 384 people were selected as the sample size using the Cochran's formula. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The research tool is a questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficient is used to obtain reliability. The test result shows that the significance level of the data is confirmed. To analyze the collected data, one-sample t-test, regression and Pearson correlation coefficient were used in SPSS software. The results of Cronbach's alpha test show that the reliability of all indicators is higher than 0.7 and is confirmed.
The results of examining the status of friendly city indicators show that the average of all variables is less than 3 (equivalent to 2.34). Therefore, there is no relative agreement in the society, meaning that the majority of respondents have chosen a very, very low option for all criteria to measure the criteria of an elderly-friendly city in the city of Babylon. The results of correlation analysis indicate that there is a weak to moderate correlation between the viability indices and the elderly mayor in the city of Babol. Then, regression has been used to investigate the effect of urban livability indices on the elderly-friendly city in Babol. The coefficient of determination of 52% of the regression analysis statistic indicates the percentage effect of the independent variable (urban viability) on the dependent variable (elderly friendly city). The significance level of sig = 0.00 also indicates that it is significant at the level of 99%, which means that there is a significant relationship between urban living and the elderly mayor. The effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable with a positive beta coefficient also indicates a positive relationship between these two variables; That is, it increases with the increase of another. In this study, it was found that changing a standard deviation in the viability indicators causes a change in a standard deviation in the elderly-friendly city variable.