نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
گروه اقتصاد.دانشکده علوم اجتماعی.دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Competitiveness can predict the economic viability of destination tourism and can be measured by calculating the rate of loss or gain of employment and revenue opportunities for the destination. Competition in tourism is a factor that makes the destination attractive to the tourist and promotes culture, economy, environmental resources in the destination (Armenska, 2011). Increasing investment in tourism destinations has led to increasing global competition for the number of incoming tourists, and as a result, tourism destinations offer different tourism services (Reisinger et al, 2019). The more the country's economy depends on tourism for its development. , Show more effort to improve the competitiveness of their goals. Thus, the impact of competitiveness on the performance of destinations is growing according to global economic trends (Dwyer, 2015). There are many forces and factors that affect the competitiveness of tourism destinations and the identification of these factors is the subject of this study. It is not possible to improve the competitiveness of a destination until the strengths, weaknesses, and priorities of a destination are identified, understood, and measured. Competitiveness is essential to the success of a destination and to ensuring its prosperity. Therefore, it is very important that the destination is aware of what needs to be done to increase its competitiveness. The competitiveness of a tourist destination is very important to achieve the desired position in the international tourism market and maintain a competitive advantage. Managing a tourist destination will not be possible without knowing the situation, phenomena and categories in which it is involved. A tourist destination must be familiar with the global definition of competitiveness and understand the models and factors of competitiveness. This has made measuring the competitiveness of the world's tourism destinations for policy-making and decision-making for future actions an important part of the tourism industry. Geotourism is often referred to as a form of nature-based tourism that focuses primarily on a geographical system (Gray, 2011)
In the present study, the capabilities of the Comansco method, Paolova method and Hadzik model have been used to investigate the extent of tourism potential and its impact on the economy of Ardabil province using the Comansco model, Hadzik model, Paolov model. One of the strengths of the Comansco method compared to other models related to the evaluation of geomorphosites for tourism, in addition to the newness of the model, is the large number of sub-criteria involved for each of the effective criteria. Unlike other similar methods in which the weight of none of the aspects of tourism is less or more than the other, because there is no specific reason for the importance of one over the other in determining the tourism potential of a geomorphic place, in this model the difference between geomorphosites Each other is identified in each of the criteria, and cases with defects and the need for reinforcement are identified and the necessary solutions are provided. The Comansco method is based on 5 values (scientific, aesthetic, cultural, economic and managerial). The maximum score that each of the sub-criteria can achieve is given against each sub-criterion (Table 1). The score of each value is based on several sub-criteria and is averaged. After identifying the geotourism attractions of the study area, to identify the characteristics of these attractions for each of them, a geomorphological location identification card was prepared based on the Comansco method. In the next step, the questionnaires were distributed among two groups of local geomorphologists and local residents. The questionnaires were completed using professors, PhD and senior geomorphology students and local people. After completing the questionnaires, the average of each value was measured for each geomorphosite and finally the results obtained from these cards were used for interpretation (Figure 2). Also in this research, to identify the studied areas, 1: 50,000 topographic maps, 1: 100,000 geological maps, as well as GIS software have been used. Field study This research was conducted in the field and a questionnaire was completed in June 1401. The selection of the study areas is due to the fact that the selected areas have tourist characteristics and are also among the index areas in the region. The study method is descriptive, analytical, comparative and the model for assessing the potential of tourism in the region is the Hadzic model and Pavolova model to analyze the competitiveness of tourist areas. In the Hadzik model, both the opinion of travelers visiting the area and the opinion of experts in evaluating the geotourism potential are taken into account. Data collection tools are also based on a questionnaire and the number of experts and tourists has been determined using a simple random sampling method and Cochran's formula. The statistical population in this study is travelers and experts who have traveled to the study areas of tourism, which for each study area was collected using a questionnaire of 50 tourists and 30 experts. A total of 240 questionnaires were completed for the three study areas.
Geomorphosites have two main values, scientific (reconstruction of some elements of ancient geography) and added value (cultural, historical, ecological, economic and aesthetic) (Reynard, 2005: 181). In this study, the overall importance and value of each geomorphosite was determined and calculated based on questionnaires prepared according to the Comansco method. The questionnaires were completed by two groups of local people and students of indigenous geomorphology of the region, whose averages are shown in Table 4. According to the calculations, the highest total value related to Sarein tourist city was 0.72 and the lowest total value related to Hir tourist city was 0.65. (Table 4). Among each of the values, aesthetic value has the highest score and cultural value has the lowest values, which should be considered in the management and organization of tourism in these areas. The highest and lowest aesthetic values are related to Sarein (20/50) and Meshkinshahr (10/25), respectively. In scientific value, Sarein and Hir, with 17.25 and 11.25, respectively, have the highest and lowest scores among tourist cities to attract tourists. The highest value in cultural value was 11.5 for Meshkinshahr and the lowest value was 7.25 for Hir. The highest economic value for Sarein was 17.75, which plays an active role in generating income for the people of the region, and the lowest value for Hir was 13.75, which may be due to lack of necessary infrastructure. In the managerial value section of Sarein and Meshkinshahr, 16.50 and 14.5 were ranked first and second, respectively (Figure 2). According to the results of Table 4, Sarein with a total value of 0.72 has gained the most tourism points. This city has a very excellent capacity for development in the tourism industry and economic development of Ardabil province, and due to having numerous hydrotherapy every year, it has witnessed a very high potential for attracting tourism. According to the results obtained from field studies and using a questionnaire, one of the negative factors reducing the competitiveness of Meshkinshahr geotourist areas in terms of lack of professionals and deficit of financial resources with a value of 8.33 is the highest score in terms of poor tourist attraction. And reducing the level of competitiveness among geotourist areas in Ardabil province, in other words, this area due to the lack of professionals and lack of financial resources has not yet been able to identify itself as a tourist area among other tourist areas and in terms of competitiveness. Located on the lower levels. Also, Sarein region, although it has developed in terms of tourism, but in terms of financial resources deficit with the amount of 7.33 has unfavorable conditions to compete with other tourist areas. In general, one of the biggest weaknesses of Sarein region is to develop and compete with other tourist areas (Table 8).
The tourism industry with its special characteristics is considered a dynamic industry with a bright future. Therefore, based on the results, it should be noted that Sarein tourist city using models to assess the potential of tourism and its impact on the economy of Ardabil province has a higher capability than other tourist areas studied. Therefore, it can significantly increase the economy of Ardabil province in terms of tourism, development and progress, and lead to job creation for the city and the province.