عنوان مقاله [English]
The vast geographical area of Iran and the long distance that most cities in our country have with coastal ports, has created many problems for exporters, importers and transit of goods, and the high cost of road transport increases the cost of goods for domestic products. This has reduced the competitiveness of domestic producers over foreign competitors. In addition to this issue, we are witnessing heavy traffic in the port cities and highways of the country, especially in the northern ports such as Anzali and Nowshahr ports, which are caused by the movement of trucks. In addition, port cities have increased traffic problems at certain times of the year due to their tourist nature due to the heavy passenger load, and sometimes truck traffic is prohibited and goods leave the port with difficulty. Problems such as long loading and unloading time and lack of space may be possible. . Today, the position of Anzali port in supplying raw materials to various factories during the last ten years has become a strategic and special port on the Caspian Sea and has a special place among the ports on the Caspian Sea. The implementation of the comprehensive plan and commercial development of Anzali port in recent years and the construction of breakwaters and the creation of new infrastructure has increased the volume of economic exchanges.
The research method is applied and Delphi method has been used for analysis, study and conclusion. In order to use the Delphi method, a team of experts in port and maritime affairs has been used. By reviewing the literature and research background, using the points of view of experts and experts and experts on port and maritime affairs and observing a comprehensive list of factors affecting the creation of dry ports was identified and this list was provided to experts and specialists separately. They were asked to identify the main and most important factors according to the research topic. After confirming its reliability and validity, the final questionnaire was designed. The Demitel method determines the relationships and how the factors affect each other, and finally the Demetel-based ANP network analysis process method, called the DANP method, will be used to prioritize the factors. MATLAB 2019 software was used. The steps of the DANP technique are as follows:
Step 1) Calculation of direct communication matrix: First, the views of experts are collected and presented with a range of 5 without impact, low impact, effective, high impact and very high impact. When the views of several experts are used, a simple arithmetic mean of the comments is used and a direct correlation matrix, or D, is formed. Step 2) Calculate the normal direct correlation matrix: In this step, the sum normalization of all rows and columns is calculated. Step 3) Calculating the complete communication matrix Criteria: To calculate the complete communication matrix, the same matrix (I) is formed first. Then we normalize the same matrix minus the normal matrix and invert the resulting matrix. Finally, we multiply the normal matrix by the inverse.The fourth step is to calculate the complete relationship matrix of the dimensions as well as the intensity of the effect of the criteria. Step 5) Normalize the full dimensional correlation matrix.Step 6) Normalize the complete correlation matrix of the criteria. Step 7)Form an unbalanced supermatrix.Step 8 - Formation of a rhythmic supermatrix.Step 9) Limit the rhythmic supermatrix.We limit the rhythmic supermatrix by being able to convey a consecutive odd number Z, until the supermatrix converges and stabilizes. The output of this step will be the effective DANP weights.
Dimensions of research variables include hardware factors, economic and environmental factors, each of which has its own visa index. Indices of hardware factors (including, customs arehouses, suitable location for high-risk and perishable shipments,Warehousing facilities, suitable equipment for unloading and loading containers and cargoes, information and communication systems including electronic data exchange systems, scanners and fleet weighing equipment, container transport routes between different modes of transport including railways, roads and inland waterways as a multi-container terminal and services. Logistics indicators, economic factors (including improving the financial and economic situation of the dry port, land prices, finding cheap labor, the possibility of providing specialized manpower, creating sustainable employment, reducing the cost of goods of industrial units) and indicators of environmental factors (including , Protection of fertile lands around Anzali city, improvement of Anzali city ecosystem (environmental effects), improvement of sustainable development process).
Among the studied factors, the factors of protection of fertile lands have gained the first rank and then the improvement of ecosystem and the process of sustainable development have been ranked second and third, which means that environmental factors are in the first priority. It is considered that the lands around Bandar Anzali are fertile and will protect the environment by constructing a dry port and proper location. Accordingly, it has no destructive effects on the ecosystem of Anzali. Then, among the indicators of economic dimensions, the factor of improving the financial and economic situation of the dry port is ranked fourth, and among the indicators of hardware dimensions, the factor of customs warehouses is ranked fifth. According to the obtained results, the effect of economic factors was confirmed as the second influential factor on the establishment of the dry port and finally the hardware factors are in the third place according to the ranking of indicators of these dimensions.
The results obtained from the prioritization of the most important factors in setting up a dry port from the perspective of experts in the field of international transportation and trade in Anzali. Environmental factors of a dry port are the most important factor in the success of such a port. In this regard, one of the problems of Anzali city in setting up ports is that there are many fertile lands around Anzali city, which will protect the environment around Anzali city by constructing a dry port. Also, the lack of a rail network in the coming years and the need for a major overhaul and further development in this area has raised concerns about entering this mode of transportation. Therefore, one of the main requirements of Anzali city for the development of dry port projects in the country, while determining and defining in a place that does not harm the environment and ecosystem of Anzali city and rail and storage capacity, and creating and improving road development in necessary cases, Structural development and role of dry ports in Anzali city. This framework can be defined by designing a comprehensive document for the development of combined ports.
The fourth priority for the financial dimension, on the one hand, indicates the relatively high importance of funding for dry port projects, and on the other hand, reflects the correct view in the country, which has considered infrastructure and platform as the principle and financial resources as complementary. That is why the entry of domestic private companies, only with financial support, has not been very effective in this area in recent years. Obviously, overcapacity of the transportation network is one of the main goals in creating a dry port, and according to research, heavy investments in the capacity of container terminals and larger ships and more container flow, put a lot of pressure on coastal port operations.The very low importance of road factors and the great attention to the environment show that there is a lot of concern in this field in the city of Anzali. Perhaps this deep attention is due to the specificity and characteristics of Anzali city. Certainly, if these ports are properly located in the country, the shortcomings and problems of road routes will be better identified. Although access to land is important in competition with the sea, the commissioning of a dry port will always have an impact on energy consumption, accumulation in road networks, to some extent on the environment. Obviously, ignoring these cases will have many negative consequences in the future that will nullify the benefits of the dry port; Among other things, the increase in road and rail transport traffic increases air pollution and heat in the region and in the long run affects the vegetation of the region, and this progresses even to the increase of diseases for residents of nearby areas.