نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جامعه شناسی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران
2 گروه مهندسی بیوسیستم-دانشکده کشاورزی- دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی-اردبیل-ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
After the industrial revolution, following the increase of human interaction with nature and its exploitation, sociologists' attention to the natural environment increased in terms of its social consequences, and later environmental sociology became the research field of many sociologists. This article deals with the effects of the Tabriz thermal power plant establishment on the social life of the people of Esfahalan village with a qualitative method of in-depth interview and observation method, looking at the conflict of values approach and the production treadmill concept. The question of the research is what changes the presence of the power plant has brought about in the social life of the village people. The purpose of the research is to find the factors that caused the adverse environmental and social changes for the village. By understanding these factors, the bio-social threats of these changes, whose source is the thermal power plant, can be reduced. The necessity of research goes back to the necessity of maintaining natural resources (gardens) in villages. So that the result of the research shows that Tabriz thermal power plant has had the most adverse effect on the natural resources of the village (gardens) in the first place. In the second place, these changes have a socio-economic aspect.
Today, due to the increasing connection of human societies with the surrounding nature and greater understanding of natural factors and their impact on human social life, environmental sociology has become very important. Social science came into being in its present meaning when man in the 18th century came out of his natural life and was freed from direct dependence on the environment. . By entering the urban life and from the second half of the 20th century, because of the many problems that humans encountered in interacting with the environment, such as biological, noise, urban pollution, etc., it again caused people to pay attention to the environment, so that in today's world, Environmental issues have become the most important controversies and sometimes they have also acquired a political color.
The relationship between man and the environment has a long history, so that this relationship has never been broken and man has always been indebted to nature in every way. In recent decades, this simple friendship has turned into a tool type relationship. Meanwhile, industrialization, increasing urbanization, modernization, capitalist economy and technological innovations have played a major role in chaining the environment. (Banifatemeh, Hosein nejhad, 2012: 176)
In the view of many classical thinkers of sociology, modern society has a dual relationship with nature; This means that this society, while being considered a part of the natural world, is also in opposition to this world. The examination of the social thought of the 19th century shows that during this period, nature was often considered to determine the state of society. (Ebrahimi, 1389: 176)
After declaring the 1970s as the decade of the environment, sociologists realized that they did not have a theory or historical research that would guide them in achieving a new and special understanding of the relationship between society and the environment. It is true that the three main pioneers of classical sociology, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx and Max Weber, had implicit aspects of the environment in their work, but this issue received less attention from sociologists after their works, because American translators and commentators. They were more interested in structural and social explanations than physical and environmental explanations" (Botel, 1968: 338, quoted by Hannigan, 2012).
Because in this article the social problem seems to have environmental and physical roots, it is necessary to define the problem first. The social problems take on different meanings in various definitions and approaches, such as the approach of social pathology, social disorganization, conflict of values, misbehavior, stigmatization, criticism, and social constructionism (Rubington and Weinberg, 2018).
Sociologists usually consider the social problem as a stated situation that is contrary to the values of a significant number of people and they believe that action should be taken to change that situation (Ibid: 12-13). It can be said that some define the social problem in distinction from the individual problem. In other words, social issues are situations and causes that have a solution outside of people and their immediate environment (Laver and Laver, 2006: 4, cited by Mousavi, Maleki, Taherian, 2019).
After the general definition of social problems, sociologists answer the questions of why and how social problems arise, how they can influence these problems, and what importance do social problems have for society. (Horton, 1978: 91 quoted by Akbari and Yousefi, 2010: 137).
According to the definition of the social issue, looking at the adverse consequences of the Tabriz thermal power plant, we come across many social issues in the context of the village, one of which is the issue of the village gardens, and this issue has caused economic and social problems. The research subject of this article is the impact of fuel pollution of Tabriz thermal power plant on the social life of the people of Esfahlan village. In general, this article seeks to answer the question of how the establishment of the power plant has affected the lives of the village people.
Esfahlan village is one of the villages of Khosrowshah district of Tabriz city in East Azarbaijan province. According to the 2015 population and housing census, this village has 4939 people, 2597 of whom are men and 2342 of whom are women. According to the same statistics, this village has 1587 households and the size of the household is 3.11. Esfahalan village is the least far from the cities of Sardroud and Khosrowshah. Also, this village is neighboring with Asbes and Lahijan villages. The proximity of Esfahalan village to Tabriz thermal power plant has caused changes in the socio-economic life of the village people.
The required data was obtained through observation and in-depth interview with 12 people of Esfehlan village. In the interview with the tenth person, we reached theoretical saturation. For more certainty, two other people were also interviewed. The interview was structured. MAXQDA 2020 software was used to analyze the interviews and categorize the problems caused by the existence of the power plant.
At first, it was decided to use the ground theory method, but due to the importance of only the consequences, only the consequences of the existence of the power plant, which were extracted from the interviews, were considered. Of the twelve interviewees, 7 were men and 5 were women. Of these, 4 people were illiterate, 6 people had non-university education and 2 people had university education.
This study looks for the effects of Tabriz thermal power plant on the biological, social and economic aspects of the people of Esfahlan village. Interview method was used to collect data. The results of his research show that the use of fossil fuels (Mazut) in Tabriz thermal power plant for energy supply has caused problems for the people of Esfahlan village. These problems have different dimensions, which are often the result of environmental problems. In general, what is inferred from the text of the interviews is the environmental effects on the socio-economic aspects.
According to the interviews, the consequences of pollution caused by the power plant are as follows: Skin and respiratory diseases, stress caused by diseases and the destruction of gardens, tree pests, changes in the appearance of the village with the increase in the construction of villas, decrease in family relationships, Migration to the city, the shame of the heads of the family in providing for the family's livelihood, Social problems, change of livelihood, decrease in income and unemployment.