عنوان مقاله [English]
Landscapes and urban green spaces are an important part of urban open spaces and they have various types, among the most important types of these places, we can mention urban parks, urban parks themselves also have different categories and according to area And the covered population provides services to the people that the citizens use and attend these places to relax and fill their free time. Based on this, the importance of urban parks in creating peace is considered, and to measure the importance of these places in creating peace, which is the aim of this research, we decided to conduct this research. In this research, library sources, interviews and questionnaires with 13 main questions and five optional options were used to collect the required data, and a total of 125 questionnaires were collected. Also, to check the received data by assigning 4, 3, 0, 2, 1 points respectively to the options I completely agree, I agree, I have no opinion, I disagree, I completely disagree. The results showed that greenness of urban parks with an average score of 3.3 and being with friends in urban parks with an average score of 2.4 are the most important and least important factors of creating peace in urban parks, respectively. In the following, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 5 experts related to the research topic and it was processed by Atlas TI software, which was consistent with the results obtained from the questionnaire. In general, it can be said that city parks play an important role in creating peace in citizens and indicators such as beauty, security, facilities and furniture should be considered in these places so that visitors to city parks enjoy spending their free time in this place and get rid of the fatigue of daily work.
Urban green spaces in various forms such as urban parks, urban open spaces, green roofs, public gardens, forest lands, etc. are considered to be the most important components of a healthy environment (Ward Thompson, 2011). Urban green spaces provide visual and aesthetic entertainment necessary to provide physical and mental health of city residents (Marconi et al, 2022). The quality of urban areas is increasingly recognized as a benefit to human health and well-being. Recent studies have increasingly investigated the positive relationship between levels of green space in people's living environments and their perceived general health. Frequent visits to urban green spaces have been widely shown to bring significant health benefits to city dwellers and help them maintain a connection with nature. Empirical evidence strongly shows the positive effect of the green environment on the physical and mental health of the population and increasing their physical activity (Vujcic et al, 2019; De la Fuente et al, 2021; Kondo et al, 2018; Mytton et al, 2012).
In the reviewed researchs, the role of urban green spaces has been measured separately in relation to mental health and increasing the quality of life, and the positive effect of these places on the two mentioned categories has been confirmed. On the other hand, in the present study, the effect of urban green spaces, especially urban parks, on the peace of the citizens, which leads to their mental health, is investigated. which can provide a new scientific view of urban parks to urban designers and planners.
2- Research method
In the current research, library sources such as related articles and questionnaires were used, the way to answer the questionnaire questions and its purpose were included in the questionnaire, and the questionnaire consisted of 13 questions that cover all the required aspects. It should be noted that to ensure the reliability of the questionnaire, the method of repeating the test was used, so that we distributed 10 questionnaires among the experts in a two-week period, and the comparison of the answers in two different periods of time showed their significant correlation, i.e. All 10 people present in the examination process had given the same answers to the questions compared to the first time of the experiment, which showed a 100% correlation. In terms of the validity of the questionnaire, 10 questionnaires were distributed among the experts and their validity was verified by them. It was confirmed. After completing the questionnaire process, semi-structured interview questions were asked in the number of 4 questions and 5 experts were interviewed about the questions, and repeated answers were received from the 5th expert onwards, which indicated the theoretical saturation of the interview, and therefore the interview was stopped.
After collecting the questionnaires, the data in them was extracted and the frequency of each of the options in the questions was determined, after this process to check the answers given to the available options (I completely agree, I agree, I don't have an opinion, I disagree, I completely disagree) were assigned points (4, 3, 0, 2, 1) respectively. After applying the scoring averaging process, the score related to each keyword in each question was determined and compared with the average scoring average (2) and the scoring average of other indicators. Further, the materials obtained from the interview were entered into the TI Atlas software. It was found that the process of coding and connecting the codes with each other was done in this software, and the final model was extracted from it, and finally, the summary of the aforementioned processes was fully presented in the results section.
The greenness of city parks to create relaxation with an average score of 3.3 was recognized as the most important factor of relaxation in city parks and being with friends in city parks to create relaxation with an average score of 2.4 was recognized as the least important factor of relaxation. The general results indicate that a total of 49% of the people participating in the research have expressed the "I agree" option in response to the questions of the questionnaire, which shows the important role of urban parks in creating peace in the lives of citizens, which nearly half of the people The participants agreed with at least one of the statements in creating relaxation.
According to the results of the research data, it can be said that urban parks play an important and effective role in increasing the quality of the environment and increasing the quality of life, which leads to peace in the citizens. As can be seen in the results section, the greenness of urban parks is especially important in the citizens' view to achieve peace.