عنوان مقاله [English]
Land has differences with other goods and production factors, which causes its pricing to be different. Land is an asset that is heterogeneous in terms of location and quality. The type of soil, geographical location, weather and physical conditions are among the factors that affect the production facilities of the land and thus its value. Since land is one of the most important resources in the agricultural sector, determining its real value can be very important for land management, its more efficient use, and agricultural development. Valuing the national capital is one of the effective factors for sustainable development. Expressing the value of natural resources raises questions about how to price these resources. The necessary efforts to estimate the monetary value of ecosystem services play a double role in the integrated management of humans and natural systems (Amirtimori, 2016). At the micro level, valuation studies lead to obtaining information related to the structure and function of ecosystems and their diverse and complex role in supporting human well-being, and in the macro dimension, the valuation of ecosystems can create and contribute to the improvement of indicators of human well-being and sustainable development. In different regions, the demand for land increases along with economic development, population growth, increase in per capita income and changes in other influencing factors. By revitalizing favorable lands and implementing policies such as reducing the size of existing lands, the increase in land demand is answered. Therefore, with the increase in the price of land, its use changes and the land is assigned to uses that are more productive. This issue causes many changes in the land market. Land is an important production factor in industry, agriculture, and commerce, and features such as indestructibility, durability, and eternal survival, savings, and insurance have doubled the importance of this economic item, since some costs and benefits have no monetary value. are, to estimate their value, it is necessary to use economic valuation techniques. Valuation research of non-market goods into two branches, the method of revealed preferences and the method of stated preferences of PEB development has found. The method of revealed preferences refers to the valuation of a non-market good by studying actual behavior in a relevant market. The most famous method of revealed preferences is hedonic pricing and travel cost (Khodavardizadeh et al., 2015). Land is a natural resource and the main factor of production. Use or non-use, presentation or non-presentation, as well as the type and extent of land use are explained through concepts such as land supply and demand function, land price, and similar categories. Land is a commodity that is heterogeneous both in terms of location and quality. Land is also mentioned as nature, factor of production, consumer goods, geographical location, space, property rights and capital (Amirenjad and Mojtahadi, 2013). The price of land is determined by its supply and demand function. For land supply, there are two concepts of economic and physical land supply. The economic supply of land is the amount of land that can be offered for different uses at a certain price. The physical supply of land is the amount of land available in a geographic area. The economic supply of land changes due to price changes or other factors affecting the supply. In general, the economic supply of land is elastic and the physical supply of land is inelastic. Land demand is mainly a derived demand. Factors such as price, income level of society, technology, land quality and taste are effective in land demand. In any region, along with economic development, population growth, increase in per capita income and changes in other economic variables, the demand for land increases, and land developers try to respond to this growing demand by reviving favorable lands and implementing policies. Others, such as making the existing parts smaller, maximize their interests in the land and real estate market. It is in line with the implementation of such policies that with the increase in the price of land, its use changes and the land is allocated to uses that have higher productivity. Such a process is practically associated with many changes in the land market. As a result, the interests of land suppliers and consumers change and ultimately this leads to the land market (Mahmoodi, 2004). Considering the specific characteristics of land, which was mentioned, it is not easy to estimate the functions of supply and demand of land. In terms of transactions, it is never exchanged under the conditions of competitive markets, and therefore the continuous land market is a monopoly market. Producers demand land according to the final production of the land in the desired use and consumers-according to their financial ability and with the aim of maximizing their utility. For this reason, the consumption and exchange value in the market is not very clear (Sabuhi and Tavana, 2007). Due to the above limitations in determining the market value of land, the Hedanic method has been used to determine the value of agricultural land. In the hedonistic method, land is considered a complex or multi-dimensional commodity that includes a basket of various characteristics. The main issue in this method is the selection of a basket of agricultural land characteristics. By using the Hedanic method, it is possible to determine those features of the land that have a greater effect on its price (Esfandiari et al., 2004). The theory of land rent was first formed based on the classic theory of land use by Van Tanen (1966). He considered transportation costs or the distance to the market as a key component of land value.Since land is one of the most important resources in the agricultural sector, determining its real value can be very important for land management, its more efficient use, and agricultural development. On the other hand, it achieves the highest possible efficiency from it due to scarce production factors such as labor, tools, purchased inputs and management ability. This study was carried out with the aim of valuing the agricultural lands of Sistan plain using Hedanik pricing method in 2022-2023.
For the valuation of agricultural land in the Sistan plain, the villages of Zulfiqari, Rahdar and Kod were selected as samples. The reason for choosing these villages is access to river water and wells, which are valuable due to the cultivation of their land. In this study, the hedonic pricing method was used to estimate the price of agricultural land in Zabol city. For this purpose, in 1400-1401, 99 questionnaires were completed in the schools of Rahdar, Kod and Zulfaqari villages of Zabul city using simple random sampling method. After completing the questionnaires, the simple logit model was estimated using Eviews7 software, and SPSS22 software was also used to estimate the statistical descriptions including the mean and minimum and maximum variables. In this research, the effect of 15 variables on the price of one hectare of agricultural land was investigated using the regression estimation method.
The results of linear logarithm model estimation showed that the variables of land quality and fertility, agricultural water quality, ability to cultivate multiple crops and re-cultivation, access to local road, distance to the city and distance to the main road have a positive effect on the price of each hectare of agricultural land. Land access to electricity and city water, impact of storms on crops, impact of storms on soil, conversion to agricultural use and conversion to non-agricultural use have negative effects on the price of each hectare of agricultural land in the region. Due to less environmental pollution in the mentioned region and the less development of urban and industrial contexts in the area of main roads compared to other studied parts of the country, as well as the concentration of facilities and infrastructures in urban and road areas. Such as water, electricity, telephone and easier transportation has had a positive effect on the price of agricultural land. The desire to change land use is also very high due to the mentioned conditions of low agricultural profit in the region and drought. According to the topology of the area and the smoothness and lack of proper drainage, in some cases the price of agricultural land is affected by the presence or absence of this factor. The percentage of the land under cultivation can confirm the availability of water and the quality and profitability of the product for the land owner, which will also have a positive effect on the price of the land. On the other hand, the owner's desire to change agricultural use, which is a less profitable activity, to non-agricultural uses, which are more profitable, increases the price of land. The ability to change the use refers to the existence of the necessary permits, access to the required facilities and infrastructure, and the profitability of this case. Meanwhile, the only thing that has a negative effect on the price of agricultural land is the distance from the road, the more the distance from the road, the lower the land price.