نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه علوم و مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، استان مرکزی، ایران
2 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد در رشته علوم و مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشگاه اراک
3 دانشگاه خوارزمی، گروه محیط زیست
4 استاد علوم زیستی، دانشگاه اینبورگ
عنوان مقاله [English]
Most of the problems in the environment are due to a lack of sufficient knowledge and cultural weakness in the relationship between man and nature. This issue is in fact a kind of cultural problem, so it requires national and international efforts to strengthen the culture of environmental protection at different levels of society, especially in children.
One of the most important concepts that a child interacts with during his or her influential years is nature. The direct and indirect experiences of nature have been one of the most important factors in the physical, perceptual, emotional, and even moral development of human beings. The researches show that children spend a large part of the day watching TV and playing computer games. It is estimated that between 15,000 and 30,000 species become extinct each year, and many species are endangered.
This reduction in diversity indicates a widespread decline in species populations and the disappearance of familiar ecosystems to children. On the other hand, education is a kind of long-term investment and of course valuable for society and the key to development. Therefore, strengthening the curiosity and cultivating the scientific spirit in children and adolescents is something that guarantees the scientific and technological progress of the country. Since one of the most sensitive and widely used issues that all members of society face throughout their lives in the environment, therefore, education related to it is very important. This study was conducted with the aim of creating environmental concerns, understanding, and impact of students in schools in Delfan and Selseleh districts.
In the present study, the statistical population was selected from all primary school students in the central and Kakavand districts (Delfan and Selseleh cites), and then a stratified proportional to the volume of 252 students was selected. In order to collect data, 504 standard questionnaires were distributed in pre-test and post-test. For this purpose, environmental skills training in primary schools was prepared using photos, videos, animations, PowerPoint, flashcards, posters, etc.
Based on this, an estimate of the biodiversity of the regions was made first. In the next step, 252 randomly selected students filled out the pre-test questionnaire and after getting acquainted with the environmental issues and plant and animal species that were identified and evaluated, completed the post-test questionnaire.
At the first, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test were used to evaluate the normality of the data. Indicators based on information theory were used to assess biodiversity. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and Shapiro-Wilk test and evaluated by box chart. Also in this study for statistical analysis of differences in the subgroups of students' gender (girl or boy), students' place of residence (city or village), and students' educational level (preschool, first grade, second grade, third grade, fourth grade, fifth grade and sixth grade Mann-Whitney test was used.
According to the results of the Wilcoxon test, a significant difference was observed between pre-test and post-test results. However, there was no significant difference between the sexes of the students in the pre-test. According to the results, the level of skills enhancement of urban students was higher than students living in rural communities, but in the post-test stage compared to the pre-test stage, the result changed. One of the reasons for this increase in post-test changes in the rural student community is the possibility of potential talents due to skills development, but in the urban student community, this potential is not possible due to access to educational facilities at a higher level of the village.
According to Figures 3-5 and 3-6, the level of knowledge of students in preschool to sixth grade is relatively increasing. Comparison of the fifth and sixth grades shows that the range of changes in the post-test stage is much smaller than the pre-test stage. This indicates an increase in the level of knowledge due to the test at higher levels, but according to the results obtained in the pre-test and post-test stages in preschool students, the first and second amplitude of changes in the post-test stage is greater than the pre-test stage.
The difference in the level of education was such that the third grade can be considered as a prerequisite for teaching environmental skills training among male and female students and rural and urban communities. Understanding the importance and necessity of public environmental education becomes apparent when one considers the fact that environmental education increases public knowledge and awareness of the environmental consequences of human activities, which develops the skills necessary to preserve the environment throughout life and creates a sense of responsibility for the general public to achieve a healthy environment and a commitment to preserving the environment for future generations and achieving this important goal and sustainable development requires environmental education.
In general, education to increase insight, knowledge, awareness, and skills in the development of environmental literacy is a major task for researchers in a community. Many sections of society, such as home, family, school, community, workplace, interest groups, and the media, can play a key role. Achieving the necessary environmental literacy is the main task of our schools. Environmental education is a tool for developing environmental literacy. As a society, we need to know to what extent environmental education in schools is appropriate for achieving skills enhancement in an environment that is becoming increasingly complex. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the following:
- The third grade can be considered as a prerequisite for teaching environmental development skills among male and female students and rural and urban communities. Therefore, if local governments and decision-makers want to provide skills development training, especially in the field of environment, they can consider this training from the elementary third.
- Establishment of green schools in different parts of the west of the country, especially Selseleh and Delfan regions (due to high biodiversity and readiness to accept environmental sciences)
- Inclusion of environmental protection and protection issues in the textbooks of students of all levels of education, especially primary school.
- Organizing training workshops on environmental issues for teachers, villagers, village elders, and especially mothers.
Keywords: Environmental education; Pre-test; Biodiversity; elementary school; skills development