عنوان مقاله [English]
Ecosystem services are valuable resources that a natural environment provides directly or indirectly to humans. The term of ecosystem services is a key concept in the field of sustainable development. Cultural ecosystem services are the immaterial benefits and out comes that people receive from the environment. These services are intangible and have different features from other ecosystem services. In general, with the decrease of cultural interactions between people and their environment, social identity is lost and it leads to cultural disorders and will lead to an isolated society. Also, the opportunity to enjoy the aesthetic features and natural and cultural benefits of the environment will be limited, and this will have negative effects on the mental and psychological health of the citizens. This process will ultimately lead to a reduction in cultural services received from the environment, which will in turn lead to high costs for the treatment of diseases and environmental problems and the fight against crime. In other words, ignoring cultural services in the environment and related decisions can destroy lifestyles and identities, endanger people's health, increase social inequality and cause conflicts in society. Urban space is the platform for the formation of sources of tourism supply and demand. Tourism can ultimately change the cultural services in the ecosystem by changing the culture. As the importance of culture in receiving cultural services in ecosystem becomes clear, the protection of culture becomes necessary; and since there is a mutually beneficial relationship between culture and tourism, the protection of culture and its expansion can be guaranteed by truism. District 1 of Ardabil city includes the central core of Ardabil city. Therefore, this region houses most of historical complexes of Ardabil city, which has a unique composition and spatial organization in terms of history. also the oldest and most valuable textures and buildings of Ardabil city are located in this district. Therefore, the special touristic conditions of this district and due to the existence of various attractions it have always been known as one of the destinations of domestic and foreign tourists. Since this tourism space can play an important role in promoting the cultural services of the ecosystem, so it is selected as a case study of the present study.
The present study is applied in terms of purpose. Also, descriptive-analytical method has been used to describe the characteristics and features of the study area in a realistic and systematic way. The research method in this research is a combination of quantitative and qualitative method. In this study, a sequential exploratory design of equal importance has been used. Also, for data analysis and information, survey method (questionnaire) and statistical analysis software SPSS and SMART PLS were used. The statistical population in this study is divided into two categories. The first category includes the Delphi group, whose opinions were used to identify the components of cultural services of the ecosystem. In this field there are, experts from professors, managers, experts in tourism and people working in this field and experts related to tourism; whom were selected by purposive sampling method. The second statistical population includes citizens of district 1 of Ardabil city, or in other words, residents, employees or people who are constantly in contact with this study area. Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size, and based on this formula, with a 95% confidence level and a 70% probability of having the characteristic in the community, 384 people were selected as the research sample. The method of this study is simple random sampling. The Delphi method was used to identify the components of factors of ecosystem's cultural services so that these components could be used as a tool to measure the impact of tourism on ecosystem's cultural services. Finally, 36 components were identified for ecosystem cultural services factors. Structural equation modeling and second-order factor analysis have been used to assess the significance of the relationships between the independent variable and the dependent variables. Also, COPRAS technique has been used to prioritize the components of ecosystem's cultural services in being affected by the tourism environment of district 1 of Ardabil city.
When considering the types of impacts of tourism (economic, social, cultural and environmental) we should consider the fact that segregating this multilateral effects and dividing them are not as easy as it seems. In other words, we cannot classify the effects of tourism only as social, environmental or economic effects. Rather, these effects tend to have many interconnected dimensions. In this study, by reviewing previous studies and theoretical perspectives, the analytical framework is based on the fact that tourism spaces in cities have a significant relationship with ecosystem cultural services. Therefore, the results of this study have been considered to be used to analyze the quantitatively and qualitatively of the impact of tourism in the district 1 of Ardabil city to promote then cultural services of the ecosystem. The results of the analysis of questionnaires show that there is a significant relationship between tourism in district 1 of Ardabil city and the promotion of cultural services in the ecosystem. Because the amount of t value of all research variables is higher than 1.96. So that the factor of knowledge and educational with t- value equal to 11.019 has the highest value and then the factor of cultural heritage with the value of 9.623, the factor of sense of place with the value of 9.129, the factor of social relations with the value of 8.520, the factor of aesthetic values with 7.839 and cultural diversity with 7.279 shows a significant relationship with tourism. Also, analyses of the amount of R2 related to each of the endogenous hidden variables shows that the tourism variable explains all the factors related to the ecosystem's cultural services in a relative way. The results of using the COPRAS technique to rank the factors of cultural services in ecosystem in the extent of being affected by the tourism environment of district 1 of Ardabil city, show that the factor of knowledge and educational values with the highest Qi (0.213) is in the first place.