نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار تاریخ و جامعهشناسی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل
2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Spatial inequality can be seen as the unequal distribution of opportunities and social positions in space. The obvious form of which is regional inequality, it has different manifestations in every society. Its visible forms in developing countries are: inequality between cities and villages, inequality between big and small cities, geographical inequality within big cities, inequality between disadvantaged and privileged areas, etc. Various forms of spatial inequality, the inequality between the city and the countryside in developing countries has a special prominence (Chalbi, 2012: 201(.Usually, stratification and social inequality are seen more in urban areas than in rural areas ( Chen & Sun, 2006 : 521) If imbalance and inequality at the regional level reflect discrimination or injustice, then regional differences can be considered a threat (Stewart, 2002: 10). Spatial heterogeneity in the form of lack and poverty in the way of living, health care, suitable school, job opportunities, food, transportation, education, suitable housing, security, information and indicators of having piped water services. , gas, electricity, etc( Hall & Ulrich, 2000: 14). The existence of inequality and its various dimensions are important signs of underdevelopment; Because in fact, developed countries are known that in addition to having high economic and social indicators, the distribution of income and facilities in those societies is almost fair, but in underdeveloped countries, both the values of these indicators are low and the distribution It is very unfair (Moslinejad, 2005: 56). The major parts of the pillars of development are services related to the population, communication access, health and hygiene, education, housing and urban parks and green spaces, and the concept of living with these materials is fulfilled; Therefore, the distribution of facilities and services is clarified by comparing different planning indicators in different regions (Shivaei and Zarrabi, 2018: 121). It is very important to pay attention to the development and spatial inequality in Kurdistan province and to prepare appropriate planning and policies in this field in this province; Kurdistan province with abundant natural resources, climate diversity, abundant labor force, the ability to produce various agricultural products specific to the climatic conditions of this province (Amanolapour, 2016: 5), as one of the developing provinces. Niafeth has many differences and contrasts in terms of having different development indicators (Bahrami, 2015: 40). The purpose of the current research is to analyze the spatial distribution of development in the cities of Kurdistan province. In order to achieve the goals of the research, the following questions and assumptions are raised:
- Is there a difference between the cities of Kurdistan province in terms of development?
- Is there a correlation between the distance from the provincial capital and the rate of urbanization with the status of the cities?
The current research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method. The statistical population of the research is ten cities of Kurdistan province, which was used to collect information from the descriptive part of documents and library studies related to the subject and to collect data from the statistical yearbook of Kurdistan province. In order to achieve the desired goals, 60 variables have been selected in five health, educational, cultural-social, infrastructure and educational sectors. The Shannon entropy technique was used to determine the importance coefficient of the indicators and the WASPAS model was used to determine the extent of the Kurdistan province's cities, to check The relationship between the distance from the center of the province and the urbanization rate with the status of the cities has been analyzed using Pearson's correlation test in SPSS and Arc GIS software for drawing maps. 5 indicators and 60 variables have been used for analysis and investigation in this research.
It is very important to pay attention to the development and spatial inequality in Kurdistan province and to prepare appropriate planning and policies in this field in this province; Nevertheless, Kurdistan province with abundant natural resources, climate diversity, abundant labor force, the ability to produce various agricultural products specific to the climatic conditions of this province, as one of the undeveloped provinces in terms of having various indicators. Development has many differences and explanations. The aim of the current research is to analyze the spatial distribution of development in the cities of Kurdistan province. In order to achieve the desired goals, 60 variables have been selected in the health, educational, cultural-social, infrastructure and educational sectors. In order to achieve the desired goals, 60 variables in the health, educational, cultural-social, infrastructure and educational sectors were selected from Shannon's entropy technique in order to determine the importance coefficient of the indicators and in order to determine the extent to which the cities of Kurdistan province have the model. Shannon's entropy technique has been used to determine the coefficient of importance of the indicators, in order to determine the extent to which the cities of Kurdistan province have the WASPAS model, and to examine the relationship between the distance from the center and the urbanization rate and the status of the cities, Pearson's correlation test has been used. Determining the degree of relative importance of each of the research variables using the Shannon entropy method indicates that the number of employees of active agricultural cooperatives covered by the General Administration of Labor and Social Welfare has the highest weight and the variables of the number of government printing houses and the number of urban post offices have had the least weight among the selected variables. In response to a question, is there a difference between the cities of Kurdistan province in terms of development?
According to the results of the WASPAS model, the cities of Bijar, Sarvabad, Sanandaj, Kamiyaran, Divandre, Qorveh, Saqez are in the first to seventh and semi-rich ranks respectively, and the three cities of Dehgolan, Marivan, Bane are in the eighth to tenth ranks. And they are deprived.
Also, in response to the question, is there a correlation between the distance from the center of the province and the rate of urbanization with the status of the cities?
According to the results, it was found that there is no significant correlation between the urbanization rate and the distance from the center with the status of the cities. This results show that there are no rich and relatively rich cities, 0.70% of the cities are semi-rich and 0.30% of the cities are deprived. Other research also shows that inequality is a phenomenon that other provinces and cities are involved with, so that the findings of Zarrabi and Mousavi Noor 2015 Spatial analysis and evaluation of the development indicators of the cities of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad provinces using factor analysis system and cluster technique. Savari et al 2016 measuring and evaluating the levels of spatial deprivation of development infrastructures in Khuzestan, Sadeghi and Zanjariyah provinces 2017 Spatial pattern of development inequality in the 22 regions of Tehran and Karimzadeh and Karimzadeh 2021 Measuring the degree of development and educational deprivation of the cities The provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan are aligned, which show that there is disparity between different regions in terms of indicators. At the end, some solutions are presented to improve the situation of the cities:In the first stage, disadvantaged cities (Bane, Marivan and Dehgolan) should be prioritized for spatial development, paying attention to more important variables in the direction of depriving the regions, fair distribution of services and development opportunities in the cities, expansion of facilities. Proportionate to population density, increasing access to healthcare services.