نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
2 استاد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
3 دانشگاه تبریز
عنوان مقاله [English]
The increasing importance of sustainable development at the urban level is due to the rapid increase of the urban population in the world. According to the World Bank report, by 2050, the percentage of the urban population will reach 68% from the current 55%, and 2.5 billion people will be added to the population of cities. Cities have assumed a central role in the discourse of sustainable development due to their demographic and economic importance and their high environmental impact. In many parts of the world, rapid urbanization is taking place on an unprecedented scale, and its severe effects on communities and the environment are evident. To combat the external effects of such rapid and partly uncontrolled development, many cities around the world have introduced various urban development policies. In sum, the discourses promoting sustainable urban development are convinced that environmental, social and economic challenges can be solved through prudent planning and are not conflicting goals. Urbanization is generally seen as positive and cities are portrayed as the frontline of sustainable development. Meanwhile, the spatial development patterns of cities is one of the most important issues in the field of urban sustainability, which is strongly influenced by these spatial development patterns. In these years, choosing this model has been one of the biggest challenges of city builders and planners. The search for an alternative model for urban development dates back to the 1970s. The energy crisis and accumulated government debt in the 1970s led to fiscal conservatism and austerity in the 1980s. The changing fortunes of cities had certainly begun, and many industrial cities showed clear signs of decline. The pioneers of new-urbanism stepped into the arena in this situation where the modern city was challenged. As a solution to the placeless suburbs, they came up with a new version based on traditional neighborhoods that followed historical principles. To alleviate the problems created by machine-oriented development, they advocated urban living in lively, mixed and diverse places. Over the past years, neo-urbanism has become one of the most prominent urban design movements in the United States; Newurbanism is potentially the most influential architectural movement in the United States in the post-Cold War era and is currently one of the most influential planning schemes. The main goal of new-urbanism is to change built environments in order to foster a different way of life. This movement began as an environmental and aesthetic critique of suburban sprawl. Since then, the movement has evolved to promote its design principles to address sustainability issues related to contemporary urbanization in the United States and beyond.
The city of Tabriz, like most cities in Iran and cities in the developing countries of the world, has been affected by global changes and the industrial revolution and the influence of modernist ideas, especially in the preparation of urban development plans and the sudden growth and expansion of the city. In fact, Tabriz, like other big cities of the country, faced exogenous and uneven growth, which is the continuous migration from small cities on the one hand and the non-observance of the principle of sustainability in the use of urban resources on the other hand. The decrease in the efficiency of the road network and the main and arterial accesses, the increase in the conversion and change of the arbitrary use of gardens and agricultural lands in and around the city to residential, commercial and service uses, the inequality of the urban areas in meeting the levels and per capita of the general population and the urbanization of the suburbs of Tabriz has pursued residential quays and satellite towns and has contributed to the formation of Tabriz's urban system and spatial polarization of rich and poor in the north and east of the city. In the meantime, the town of Parvaz is one of the residential towns of Tabriz city, which was designed in the 60s and entered the population process, and in these years, with its different environment and design, it has been able to introduce itself as one of the most successful neighborhoods in Tabriz city. which manifests the manifestations of sustainable urban development. In this regard and considering the extreme instability of urban development in Tabriz city, finding a relatively appropriate model to promote urban development is of great importance, which is the necessity of such a research to evaluate the compatibility of the spatial development model of Tabriz flight town with sustainable models and to promote such models. It proves the direction of achieving sustainability.
In terms of type, this research is part of applied-developmental research and in terms of method it is part of descriptive-analytical research. To collect information from document studies based on the nature of the subject, all types of available documents including books, articles and magazines, theses and websites and databases and statistics and data from related organizations are used. Also, to complete the required data, field studies in the form of surveys and observations and the use of city maps with a scale of 1/2000, satellite images, global positioning device (GPS), field observations, etc. have been used. One of the most important tools used in this research is geographic information system software such as ARC GIS and AutoCAD Map 3D, which are used to analyze the spatial information of the research.
The first step of this research is extracting the criteria and practical standards of new urbanism. At this stage, the criteria are extracted using documentary and library studies and using previous researches, but due to the lack of specific standards for these criteria, using the rules of urban planning local and international standards are defined for the criteria. In the next step, the criteria and standards extracted at the level of the studied area are checked and finally the conformity of the spatial development pattern of the area with the pattern of neo-urbanism is evaluated.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the spatial development of Tabriz flight town based on the principles of neo-urbanism. In this regard, the principles of new-urbanism were divided into seven general criteria and each of these criteria was divided into several other indicators and several standards were defined for each of them.
Regarding the use mixing index, the presence of six neighborhood uses with the approximate observance of the governor's per capita, the protection index of open and green spaces, the proximity of the green space per capita to the governor's capita and the useful functional radius of green spaces, the index of creating distinct and attractive communities with a strong emphasis on the concept of place The location of the neighborhood center in the geographical center of the town and the useful functional radius of the center and the existence of the edges of the center, an indicator of creating various opportunities from transportation, the existence of a bus network on all main routes, an indicator of creating walkable neighborhoods, the useful functional radius of the center and shopping centers And the appropriate separation of space on the sidewalks, the index of the use of compact buildings and high density, and the index of creating different opportunities to choose housing, with the presence of different types of housing in the town, has created an environment that is highly compatible with the principles of neo-urbanism. Considering the problems mentioned for the city of Tabriz in the field of urban development instability, using the results of this research, the development model of parvaz town can be presented as a suggested model for other areas of the city so that some of its problems in the field of sustainable development can be reduced.