عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban elements (memorials) play an important role in the process of forming, changing and reproducing urban identity. In today's conditions, where the identity of cities is undergoing changes with great speed, the position of urban elements as elements of the city's identity doubles. In the past, the Iranian city had a special personality and identity, while in the current situation, it is moving towards the diminution of its identity. Inadequate attention of the creators of urban spaces and elements to the concept of beauty, along with the prevalence of mercantile spirit in many urban activities, including constructions, causes this problem to emerge and intensify. The purpose of this research is to investigate the role of public art in enhancing the identity of urban spaces from the perspective of women in Ardabil city. This research is applied in terms of nature and in terms of descriptive-analytical method. The data needed in this study were collected through field and library methods. The statistical population of the research is women (experts and non-experts in art, architecture) in Ardabil city. which is done by simple random sampling method. Spss software and statistical test (one-sample t) were used for data analysis. The research results show. Among the average questions, the questions related to famous statues have the highest score with (4.16) percent and cultural-local statues with an average of (3.96), as well as the variables (promoting creativity and helping to strengthen the local economy). with an average of 4.27, they have the highest frequency. From the point of view of women, the creation of public arts in Ardabil city will give identity and increase the creativity of citizens and the prosperity of the local economy by attracting tourism to the city. Therefore, urban managers can increase the quality of urban spaces and the quality and vitality of citizens, especially the women of the city, who are half of the society, by planning and designing urban elements based on history and culture, as well as based on visual beauty in the city.Introduction
Nowadays, the people of the society spend more time outside this environment than they are at work or at home. What is certain is the preservation of the urban space and mental peace in the city, this is important by paying attention to the urban elements as works of art, because the audience can reach spiritual vitality by seeing the works of art, and in addition, they have peace in this spiritual space. On the other hand, the visual vision of the audience is strengthened and effective steps are taken for the cultural improvement of society, and our modern society is forced to create more living space with the expansion of cities (Bazargar, 2016: 86). A beautiful element that not only adds to the spatial quality of the city, but also improves the culture of the society. In order to achieve such a city, it is necessary to examine the elements of the city from the point of view of aesthetics and identity, and if the elements do not have such characteristics, steps should be taken to improve them (Aminzadeh, 2010). However, only paying attention to the necessities and requirements of life in cities like Ardabil has led to the formation of these spaces, regardless of the qualitative, aesthetic and human aspects. This factor causes the loss of the human dimension and the less presence of citizens in these spaces, which causes a decrease in place belonging and identity, as well as interactions between humans and the environment. In this regard, the aim of this study is to investigate the role of public art in enhancing the identity of urban spaces from the perspective of women in Ardabil city.
The current research is practical in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The method of collecting data related to library research as well as field studies includes investigating the effect of public art in urban spaces on the identity and quality of space from the perspective of women in Ardabil city and using questionnaire tools. Cronbach's alpha was used to confirm the validity of the questionnaire, considering that little research has been done in this field, according to professors and experts, and to check the reliability of the questionnaire, the overall alpha coefficient (.906) is given in table (2), which shows It is due to the high reliability of the questionnaire. The statistical population includes women (experts and non-experts). To estimate the sample size, Cochran's formula was used, and 185 samples were estimated and distributed among the statistical population using a simple random method. It should be noted that the questions were evaluated through a 5-point Likert scale. In order to analyze the data, Spss software was used, and for inferential statistics in which the relationships between variables are examined based on the purpose of the research (one-sample t-test).
Based on the results obtained from the research, in order to obtain the impact of public art in the urban space on the identity of the city of Ardabil, a statistical test (one-sample T) was used. which includes 6 items related to celebrity statues and cultural-local statues. Among the average questions, questions related to famous statues have the highest score with 4.16%, and cultural-local statues also have a medium to high percentage with an average of 3.96% based on the test results. Seeing these statues in the urban space, women feel better in these places. Based on the test average, as can be seen in the graph, the highest average percentage is related to famous statues.
Also, based on the findings, the impact of public art on the quality of the urban space from the point of view of women has been discussed in 5 items, and the results show that the average of the variables is higher than the average (3) and the average of the variable (sense of local distinction, 4.03) Enthusiasm in people, 3.85), improvement of society's culture, 3.96), (help to strengthen the local economy, 4.27) and variable (promotion of creativity, 4.27). The variables (promoting creativity and helping to strengthen the local economy) have been assigned the highest frequency. From the point of view of women, the creation of public arts in Ardabil city will increase the creativity of the citizens as well as the prosperity of the local economy by attracting tourism to the city. Therefore, urban managers should increase the quality of urban spaces and the quality and vitality of citizens, especially the women of the city, who are half of the society, by planning and designing urban elements based on history and culture, as well as based on visual beauty in the city.
In the city of Ardabil, urban elements and public art can be seen only in a few famous statues and some examples of murals. Based on the results of the research, the desire of women to create all kinds of public art can be felt in the entire city. The city of Ardabil has a lot of potential to create such arts, but unfortunately, the managers and planners of the municipality and related bodies do not pay much attention to the identity and quality of the urban space. And this is a social problem, especially for half of the society, which are women. Ardabil, which has been the capital of the province for more than three decades, has a rich history and culture and is still deprived of having a city symbol, and no signs and symbols of this culture and history can be seen in the streets and squares of the city, and this is despite the fact that in the years In the past, the installation of statues and statues in urban places and roads has had an exponential acceleration, which not only did not achieve the desired result in introducing the city, but also added to the visual confusion in the city.