عنوان مقاله [English]
Todays One of the important environmental challenges is excessive production of municipal waste and its management. In a world that is moving towards a future with an urbanization approach , the growth rate of urban waste production as an important by - product in urbanization is increasing more than the growth rate of urbanization . The negative effects caused by the lack of sanitary management of wastes put the health of humans and other living beings at risk. Action must be taken to solve this problem , otherwise we will face environmental problems in the not too distant future. Due to the fact that the cost of burying solid waste materials is increasing and the suitable land for burial is limited, recycling is an effective option instead of burying. Recycling and processing is the second priority in the hierarchy of urban waste management. In MRFs , by separating waste and compressing waste , leachate collection and purification is done , as a result , it will play an important role in reducing production leachate. The purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of building processing and recycling facilities in the proposed location , which is south of the ring road from Sarpol Zahab to Qasr Shirin in Kermanshah province.
The research method is descriptive - analytical and it was carried out using Iranian matrix or modified Leopold based on library studies , field visits and interviews with experts . The advantage of using Iranian or modified Leopold matrix compared to other methods is that it is a quantitative method and even if the evaluator is inexperienced and incorrectly values a parameter , due to the averaging of all parameters , that error can be adjusted to a large extent. and it does not create a problem in the whole conclusion.
Based on the studies carried out in the project's knowledge sections and the environmental characteristics of the studied area, the potential of various types of environmental effects resulting from the implementation of the construction project of urban waste processing and recycling facilities , separated by the construction phase and operation on the physical and chemical , biological and socio-economic environments , were scored and predicted using the modified Leopold matrix . The Iranian Leopold matrix , considering the effects of project implementation in both the construction and operation phases on the environmental components , are applied methods for environmental impact assessment which is the average initial score in the Iranian Leopold matrix . Then the average of four environmental components was calculated.
Finally , the final score is calculated with the sum of the scores in the construction and operational phases.
Results and discussion
The findings from the Iranian Leopold matrix show that in the construction phase , the most negative effects are related to the creation of the access road , to access the site, an access road of about 1. 5 km from Sarpol Zahab road to Qasr Shirin should be created , this operation causes changes in the natural shape of the land , these changes are associated with negative effects. After the construction of the access road , earthmoving operations have more negative effects. As a result of this operation , a volume of soil is moved . With the operation of machines , amounts of polluting gases are discharged into the environment and cause the degradation of air quality. The largest amount of positive effects is also related to the installation of project facilities and equipment , which causes an increase in the demand for materials , machinery , equipment and facilities.
In the construction phase , the most positive result is related to the creation of employment. All operations in this phase will create employment and eliminate unemployment. After that , industries and mines and investment have the most positive consequences. Considering the extent of the project, which includes Ezgole , Rijab and Sarpol Zahab , it can be considered a big project, which attracts investment. The most negative consequences in this phase are related to the effect on health and hygiene, traffic and lack of safety , pasture and animal husbandry.
In the operation phase , the most negative effects are related to the fermentation and processing and transportation of waste , and the most positive effects are related to the production and sale of the product . In the operation phase, the most negative consequences are related to health and hygiene, air and sound quality, and the most positive consequences are related to creating employment and investment , respectively. In the construction phase , the most negative consequences are related to the biological, physical - chemical and socio - economic environment, respectively. But in the operation phase, the most negative consequences are related to the physical - chemical environment , but the socio - economic environment has the most positive consequences in both phases.
Based on the results of the Iranian Leopold matrix, the most negative effects on the environment were observed in the construction phase , while there are more positive effects in the operation phase than the construction phase.
In general , a total of 204 effects - consequences have been identified in the evaluation of the plan , of which 141 effects - consequences are related to the construction phase and 63 effects-consequences are related to the operation phase. To investigate the feasibility of establishing urban waste processing and recycling facilities in the proposed area , which is south of the Sarpol Zahab road to Qasr Shirin in Kermanshah province , according to the analyzes performed and also according to the principles of Iranian matrix analysis , considering that the average number of classifications in Columns and rows of matrix tables, the number of ranking averages is less than -1/ 3 less than 50 Percent . Therefore , the project is approved subject to corrective and prevention measures and reduction and control of negative effects and consequences and continuous environmental and health monitoring.