عنوان مقاله [English]
Tourism, with its self-sustainable development features, plays an essential role in the economy of the countries of the world (Munavari and Feridouni, 2008). Tourism is referred to as one of the most essential development factors in human and scientific societies (Hossam, 2015). In other words, geotourism is a nascent phenomenon that is expressed in the form of two characters of geology and geography (Mokhtari, 2014). In the last decade, tourism has stepped forward and entered much more serious and new fields, such as using and benefiting from the capabilities of geotourism (Zandmoghadam, 2018). Meanwhile, the relationship between tourism destination and geotourism is also important (Paskov, 2015). Also, in order to plan and manage geotourism areas, it is an inevitable necessity to know the criteria and values of geosite and geotourism and to combine them in the framework of geotourism evaluation methods and models. These methods determine the location of a geotourism area, its use and its future management by examining and combining the types of geotourism values and examining the relationship between them. Sarein city is one of the tourist cities of Ardabil province, and identifying the tourist areas of this region is essential and essential to attract tourism.
In this regard, several studies have been conducted inside and outside of Iran, which are briefly mentioned. Safari et al. (2018) investigated geotourism capabilities using evaluation and zoning methods (case study: Divandre and Saqez cities). They came to the conclusion that Karftu Cave, Shahid Kazemi Dam Lake, Saral Plain, Saqoz River and the slopes of Khan Mountain are the most suitable areas for the intended purposes. In fact, these areas, along with the high score they have obtained in the evaluation methods, in terms of the criteria that have been considered in the zoning, are located in the prone areas for the development of geotourism. Asghari Saraskanroud and Nezafat Tekle (2019) evaluated the geotourism potential and analyzed the competitiveness of the geotourist areas of Sarayin city (case study: Bileh Dargh, Darband Vargesaran, Alvares) using the Paulova and Hadzik model. They came to the conclusion that Alvares tourism region has appropriate potentials to attract tourists to Sarein city in terms of competitiveness compared to other studied tourism regions. Taherkhani et al. (2019), in order to prioritize land potentials - tourism in Alamut Qazvin with different combined models. These researchers came to the conclusion that the combined results of the three methods show that the geosites of Avan, Alamut and Moalem Kalaye have the most favorable conditions that can be marketed as tourism products, and in contrast to the three geosites of Qalal Sirki Ovank - Dineh Rood and Kochnan - Etan and also the Atan Valley are in unfavorable conditions, and the necessity of planning for the management of these geosites seems essential. Esfandiari Darabad and colleagues (1401) evaluated and analyzed the tourism potential and competitiveness of Ardabil province using the Paulova model and Hadzik's dynamic model (case study: Heer, Khalkhal, Sarein). These researchers came to the conclusion that Sareen tourism region has appropriate potentials for attracting tourists in terms of competitiveness compared to other studied tourism regions. The aim of the current research is to evaluate the geotourism and zoomorphological capability of Sarein city using Kobalikova and Fiolet model.
This research is an applied type of research in terms of its purpose, and in terms of the nature of the data, it is a quantitative and qualitative method. Research data has been collected through field and library-document studies.
Kubalikova model: In this model, the criteria are placed in five groups. It covers almost all features of geotourism. The foundation of the first group of criteria (scientific and inherent values) is based on the geological principles, the integrity and virginity of the place and the definitions of geotourism with a geomorphological and geological perspective. The second group of criteria (educational values) is based on the fact that all definitions of geotourism emphasize educational issues and the educational content of environmental issues, protection and honoring of host communities, and active evaluation and interpretation of its principles. The basis of the third category of criteria (economic values) is based on principles such as tourist satisfaction, benefit to local communities, and diversity and marketing. Sustainability, land preparation and preservation of natural resources and some conservation principles constitute the combination of the principles of the fourth group of criteria (conservation values). The last set of criteria originates from the fact that geotourism, along with considering natural issues in evaluations, also considers aesthetic and cultural aspects.
Fiolet model (national park method): This method was first created by Fiolet in 2011 to investigate geotourism in national parks in France. In this method, geomorphosite and landforms were selected from this national park for study and evaluation according to the four criteria of origin of formation, geographical distribution, tourism and the general state of access (Aroji, 2013). Therefore, the overall evaluation of geotourism and geomorphosites in this method is based on two main rates. Management rate is a decision support. which can include things such as programs, plans and scientific measures (such as control process, scheduling, etc.), special environmental protection plans and projects, data management and visual information, etc. Tourism rates are generally used to promote, develop and spread tourism. To calculate this rate, complementary values must be considered. Complementary values in this method include use value and cultural value (Fiolt and Sorb, 2011). Management and tourism rate criteria receive a score from 0 to 1 according to the scope of their impact in the region.
Results and Discussion
Results of Kubalikova model
Based on the results of table (3), in order to evaluate the importance of indicators in the geotourist areas of Sareen city, the average score of the indicators was calculated. According to the obtained results and examination of the questionnaires, the value of each criterion for the studied tourist areas was determined and calculated. Based on the results obtained, Alvares ski resort has the highest score of (10) compared to other geotourist areas. Also, Alvares ski resort has the highest score in terms of scientific, economic, protection and added value index. Being in the category of high economic value due to the attraction of tourists during the year has been the turning point of Alvares tourist area in Sarein city. From this point of view, the development of Alvarez ski resort is the most important priority.
The results of Fiolet model (National Park method)
Table (4), investigations were done through expert group and through field visits of documents, in two ways. According to the results obtained in the evaluation method of national parks, the value of geotourism has been evaluated in two parts: management rate and tourism rate. Based on the results of the management rate, the Alvares ski area has a variety of capabilities compared to other geotourist areas with a total score of 5.10. Also, the lahars of the tourist village of Viladargh have earned a score of 8.25. As can be seen in the table (4),
Therefore, based on the above results, the results were obtained that two geotourism methods have been used in the evaluation of geotourism areas, and although these two methods had commonalities in the field of geotourism values, their calculation method was different, therefore sometimes different results were obtained. . However, by combining the results, the following three tourist areas had the most favorable conditions for the development of geotourism, and these three tourist areas include the Alvarez ski resort, Viladragh and Gorgor waterfall. These tourist areas, in addition to having attractions and geological values, have suitable tourism services and infrastructure.
Keywords: " geotourism ", " tourism potential ", " Sarein city ", " Kubalikova model ", " Fiolet model ".