بررسی و ارزیابی سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی شهر اردبیل با تاکید بر رویکرد توانمندسازی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 خیابان وحدت. محله 4.کوچه شهید طهماسب اسدی.پلاک 56

2 استاد گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی - گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی/ دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 استادگروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی - گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی/ دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

10.22034/jess.2023.387314.1981

چکیده

سکونتگاه‌های غیر‌رسمی نوعی سکونت در فضای شهری است که در تمامی ابعاد سیاسی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، اقتصادی، کالبدی و حقوقی با انواع سکونت موجود در شهر تفاوت‌های اساسی را نشان می‌دهد. بنابراین ضرورت بررسی و واکاوی بیشتر این معضل در شرایط جدید شهرها مهم و اساسی می‌نماید. فلذا در این پژوهش ضمن معرفی راهبردها و دیدگاههای حل مسئله سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی، امکان‌سنجی به کارگیری راهبرد توانمندسازی از جنبه‌های اجتماعی در محدوده محلات اسکان غیررسمی شهر اردبیل مدنظر قرار گرفته و متعاقبا به ارائه راهکارهایی مناسب جهت توانمندسازی این سکونتگاه با توجه به توانهای اجتماعی و انسانی (توسعه بومی) اقدام می‌گردد. روش پژوهش حاضر به لحاظ ماهیت و روش، توصیفی و تحلیلی بوده و از لحاظ هدف کاربردی می-باشد. به منظور دستیابی به هدف پژوهش ابتدا پرسشنامه‌ای مبنی بر متغیرهای اجتماعی تنظیم و سپس روایی آن با توجه به نظر کارشناسان ارزیابی شده و پایایی آن نیز از طریق ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد سنجش قرار گرفت که میزان آلفای پرسشنامه 77% درصد برآورد شده که در مقایسه با حداقل پایایی 67% ، مقدار قابل قبولی را نشان می‌دهد. سپس از طریق نمونه‌گیری به روش کوکران 349 پرسشنامه برای پاسخگوی به فرضیات تحقیق بین اهالی با تاکید بر نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده پخش گردید. نتایج پژوهش چنین می‌نماید که در درجه اول، بایستی موجودیت این سکونتگاه‌ها در شهر به عنوان یک پدیده اجتماعی از جانب مسئولین شهری پذیرفته شده و متعاقبا جهت ارتقاء و بهبود بخشی به این مسئله، از بکارگیری روش‌های اجتماعی مشارکتی غفلت نگردد. در ضمن با توجه به ظرفیت‌های بالای محلات سیزده‌گانه در زمینه‌های اجتماعی، راهبرد مدنظر بهترین راه‌حل می-باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ardebil's informal settlement in Ardebil, emphasizing the empowerment approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Alipour 1
  • Mohammad Hasan yazdani 2
  • Alireza Mohammadi 3
1 خیابان وحدت. محله 4.کوچه شهید طهماسب اسدی.پلاک 56
2 Professor of Geography and Urban and Rural Planning - Geography and Urban and Rural Planning/ Mohaghegh Ardebili University
3 Professor of Geography and Urban and Rural Planning - Geography and Urban and Rural Planning/ Mohaghegh Ardebili University
چکیده [English]

Introduction, context and expression of the problem
The city has always faced numerous issues since its inception, including acute and fundamental issues that have been regarded as the major challenge of the Third Millennium, the issue of unstable development and out of urban rule as settlements. It is informal. Such areas with a reflection of urban poverty and the lack of equipment for residents in the area, both in developed and retarded countries, especially in developing and retarded countries, which are somehow facing severe spatial inequality. They do. Unofficial settlements are the result of rapid urbanization and economic problems of developing countries and developing countries. This unreadable urban phenomenon has caused many problems for cities, which is one of the biggest urban problems. However, there have been various methods and perspectives to solve the problems and problems caused by these settlements. These methods can be separated in two groups of physical engineering and social engineering. Of course, the second methods, especially the empowerment strategy, are today in the world of marginalization and informal accommodation literature. Therefore, in this study, while introducing the strategies and perspectives of the problem of informal settlements, the feasibility of applying the empowerment strategy, which is a social method, has been investigated to solve the problems of informal settlements in Ardabil.
Research Methodology
The type of applied -development research and the method of studying it has been a descriptive -analytical, as well as the fruit of information and data, libraries and fields. The narrative test used in this study is formal and content narrative. The questionnaires were given to the masters of urban geography to test formal and content testing. Also, the opinions and suggestions of students and researchers in various disciplines related to official and urban planning have been used. Since the study is one of the sample of inferential descriptive studies, it is necessary to consider the reliability of the questionnaire to choose the ability to be used in the environment and other space. Cronbach's alpha method was used to achieve this result. The questionnaire used at 77% alpha shows an acceptable amount compared to the minimum reliability of 67%.
The statistical population in this study includes residents of informal settlements in Ardebil (84732). In this study, the Cochran method was used to obtain the sample size and eventually 349 people were selected as the sample size. Statistical methods were used to analyze the collected information. In this study, because of qualitative traits and data used, inferential statistics were obtained by the use of the CHI-Square test with a meaningful level of 0.05. SPSS and Excel software has been used to analyze the data collected. The numerical average analysis has also been used to rank each of the indicators in the empowerment process.
Research Findings
According to field studies, the descriptive results of the study show that out of 349 family supervisors who were questioned, 312 were 89.4 percent of men and 37 were 10.6 percent female. In the case of a household dimension of 349 respondents in the study range 8 households equivalent to 2.3 % with 1 person, 65 households equivalent to 12.62 % with 2 people, 71 households equivalent to 34.34 % with 3 people, 95 households equivalent to 22// 27 % have 4 people and finally 110 households equivalent to 31.52 % have 5 and more. Studies on household origin show that the results show that out of 349 family supervisors who answered the author's questions 223 people equivalent to 63.9 % of Ardabil villages, 67 people equivalent to 2. /19 % of the villages of Moshginshahr, 55 people equivalent to 15.8 % of Moghan and 4 households have cited their demands from other areas of the province, equivalent to 1.1. The percentage is that 113 household supervisors equivalent to 32.4 % of their migration reasons to find work, 32 people were 9.2 % lack of welfare facilities, 78 people equivalent to 22.3 % of kinship and 7 equivalent The percentage of natural disasters and 92 household supervisors, equivalent to 26.4 percent of the land, and finally 27 %, equivalent to 7.7 %, cited the other reason for their migration. Therefore, it can be said that finding the right work and then the cheapness of land has been the most important reasons for migrating to the area. Also, the job status of household supervisors within the study scope indicates that workers and freelance jobs have a significant share. Also, the inferential results of the study indicate that there is a significant relationship between all independent variables on the research and the dependent variable empowering informal settlements. The numerical mean analysis was used to rank each of the indicators in the empowerment process. As shown in Table 4-4, according to Friedman's test, there is a significant difference between the mean empowerment indices at the alpha level of 0.01. In the meantime, the highest average of 4.59 physical indexes), economic indexes (4.56) and the lowest to macro indexes (3.58) and environmental and environmental health indicators ( 65/3) dedicated. Investigating the average data from the quantitative analysis of existing capacity existing capacity indicators of informal accommodation
Discussion and conclusion
One of the issues that neglect or lack of attention in the long run can have many negative consequences for people and city managers is informal accommodation. Using the wrong methods of dealing with this phenomenon is not less than neglect and neglect. In Third World countries, including Iran, the method of dealing with this phenomenon, namely, has been the use of physical methods, while today the negative consequences of using this method have become clear to all urban managers and planners. The use of community -based methods is quite clear and tangible. Accordingly, it is necessary to arrange the appropriate programs to empower these places in order to enable social empowerment. So far, many methods have been used to eliminate the problem of informal accommodation, but in practice they have not had the necessary and acceptable acceptance, and these methods have faced many problems. The reasons for this dilemma (lack of responsibility, spatial lack, social cohesion, lack of social participation, lack of awareness, etc.) may be that factors such as citizens' lack of awareness of their citizenship rights, lack of confidence in government agencies because Failure to fulfill demands, lack of citizens' belonging to their place of residence, existence of government -run standards, bureaucratic dealing with urban problems, lack of transparency of urban management activities and city councils for citizens, government -governing councils And the sovereignty of the central culture of the central culture should be returned to the local level rather than the central demand for the people and the government and the lack of attention to the real needs of citizens. Investigating the average data from the quantitative analysis of existing capacity existing capacities of informal accommodation indicators of Ardebil city indicates high level of high level, which brings more attention to relevant authorities and institutions in the field of urban management to the range. The purpose of the study requires.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Unofficial accommodation
  • empowerment
  • social approach
  • Urban poor
  • Ardebil city