عنوان مقاله [English]
Institutions are the informal norms and formal rules of a society and are a combination of laws, rights and decision-making through organizations that emphasize more on environmental quality which their existence has a significant impact on protecting the quality of the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the quality of institutions on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the period from 2001 to 2021 for a selection of member countries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization using the panel model and the generalized method of moments (GMM). The results of this research and the coefficients of the examined variables indicated a negative and significant effect of institutional quality variables and economic growth rate on CO2 emissions; and the variables of energy consumption, trade openness and population growth rate have shown a positive and significant effect on CO2 emissions. Also, the effect of industry variables and human capital on CO2 emissions has been insignificant. According to the results of this study, it is suggested that in order to reduce the CO2 emissions, the member countries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization should adopt the following policies: improving the quality of institutions, developing of environmental organizations, freedom of media and press to cover environmental risks and also adopting legal measures such as environmental regulations and standards as well as market-based environmental policy tools such as environmental tax and reduction of government subsidies.
Environmental quality is a major priority in the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations Developmental Program. Recently, there is a worldwide focus on the ways of improving environmental quality; one of them is reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Long-term and sustainable solutions should be done by the whole economy to reduce these emissions. The transformation of energy, social and economical systems plays an essential role in the proceed to a low carbon economy. Although purposefully environmental, social and economical policies are critical to guide such a transition, institutional quality must be considered to ensure effective implementation of these policies. Institutions are the informal norms and formal rules in a society and play a significant role in protecting the quality of the environment. The quality of institutions in a country may be a key factor for environmental sustainability. Therefore, institutions should be considered as input for sound legislation and effective enforcement to improve environmental quality worldwide. Institutions are a combination of laws, rights, and decision-making through organizations that emphasize environmental quality. The highest level of human security is achieved when societies and individuals aim to reduce the threat to human life by improving the quality of the environment and social rights. Efficient institutions may influence environmental growth and quality by ensuring environmentally friendly industries.
In order to empirically analyze the effect of institutional quality on carbon dioxide emissions, panel data model is used. The model applied in the research is based on the adjusted model of Grossman and Krueger (1995): Are economical, financial and institutional developments important for environmental degradation? The evidence is rooted in transition economies. The variables examined in the model are examined using the generalized moment method invilving the member of the Shanghai Treaty countries in the period of 2001-2021. Also, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan were excluded from the statistical population due to the lack of data on the investigated variables in the period of time.
Descriptive statistics of research variables was done for seven member countries of the Shanghai Treaty using, Im, Sons and Shin (IPS), generalized Fisher-Dickie Fuller (ADF) and Fisher-Phillips Perron (PP) tests, stationarity test of the variables and the Kao test for checking the coexistence of the panel data;It was done in the period of 2001-2021 using Eviews11 software.
Flimer's test statistic was used in order to check the significance of panel data method, GMM model estimation, and Sargan's test was used to measure the appropriateness and inappropriateness of instrumental variables in the model. At the end of classical hypothesis tests such as non-homogeneity of variance test and non-autocorrelation test through soft Stata15 software was used.
Due to the limitation of obtaining data information for a long period of time for the selected countries that are members of the Shanghai Treaty, it was not possible to use time series data, for this reason, panel data for the period from 2001 to 2021 have been used to conduct this research. In order to test the variables of this research, the method based on dynamic data panel data was used and the reliability of the variables was checked through Levin, Lin and Chu panel unit root tests, Fisher-Dickie-Fuller test and Im, Sons and Shin test using the software (Eviews11) and finally In order to estimate the classical equation and hypothesis, the GMM method of generalized moments has been done by Stata15 software. First, Limer's F test was performed to make a distinguish between panel and polled data. This brought us closer to the panel data. Then, Hausman's test was used to prove the model with fixed and random effects. The results of this test indicated that the model has fixed effect. Therefore, the model related to the panel data was specified and Mana's tests (unit root) were examined. The results of these tests were significant for all the variables examined in the research at the level and difference regarding countries stated in Table 2. The results indicated that the absence of the regression is false.
In the next step, the model chosen for this research, which was done to investigate the effect of institutional quality on carbon dioxide emissions, was tested using the generalized moment method of GMM,; As shown in Table 7, the investigated variables show different effects on the dependent variable (CO2(.
There is a negative and significant relationship between the variables of institutional quality and economical growth and the emission of carbon dioxide gas. This indicates that public institutions in these countries are valuable and the governments are performing their assigned duties in order to control the emission of carbon dioxide gas, which is considered an indicator of the state of the environment. There is a negative and meaningless relationship between human capital and industry variables and the carbon dioxide emission variable. The results indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between the variables of energy consumption, population, trade openness and carbon dioxide emissions. Considering the importance of theoretical foundations of the research and the importance of the quality of institutions in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, the results of the study showed that in the studied countries, environmental protection laws and regulations have been implemented and compiled efficiently and effectively leading to reduction of CO2