عنوان مقاله [English]
The sorghum forage plant with the scientific name Sorghum bicolor Moench belongs to the cereal family. This fodder is one of the most likely crop plants to drought stress and it has been called the camel of the crop plants of the world. Sorghum is considered a short-day plant and its suitable day length is 10 to 12 hours. Sorghum is resistant to dehydration and consumes 35-40% less water than corn during its growth period. You can grow it in the tropics all year round very sensitive about the spring cold. Length of forage growth period of sorghum based on climatic influence, environmental, agronomic and genotype factors has suggested at least 90 to more than 150 days in three main phases: vegetative, inflorescence development and seed growth. Also, it has specified the stages of development of sorghum as follows: stage zero; greening, observation of stalk pods on the soil surface. Step 1; View the third leaf collar. Step 2; View the fifth leaf collar. Step 3: Transition from vegetative to reproductive. Step 4 – Exit the flag leaf vertices. Step 5, Cluster Cover. Stage 6; 50 percent pollination. Step 7; Soft paste. Step 8; Stiff paste. Stage 9: Physiological Proceedings. The results showed that sorghum is cultivated at latitude between 45° of the northern hemisphere to 45° in the southern hemisphere, and in Philippines the height of sorghum is 1500 meters and in East Africa between 90 and 1500 m in East Africa, in America 25 to 850 m and in Africa from 400 m to 2500 m and generally cultivated from zero to 1500 m above sea level. Considering the importance of protein in the human diet, it is necessary to increase the production of fodder plants that are the source of animal protein production. In this research, an attempt is made to prepare suitable areas for the cultivation of sorghum fodder plant, which is very important for livestock feeding in Ardabil province, using the methods and criteria of the study of agricultural climate zoning map of sorghum fodder cultivation in Ardabil province.
Methodology (Times New Roman, 12 Bold)
Ardabil province is located in north-west of Iran and its location is at latitude of 37° and 45 minutes to 39° 42 minutes in the northern hemisphere and in geographical length of 47° and 3 minutes to 48° and 55 minutes of eastern longitude. Its area is about 17953 square kilometers (about 1.09% of the country's area). In this study, the optimum climatic requirement of sorghum forage cultivation from available sources was determined. Then, according to the favorable climatic requirement, precipitation, temperature, 12 synoptic stations during the statistical period (1400-2000) were obtained from Ardabil Meteorological Department and soil elevation, slope and depth maps were prepared from the relevant organizations. Also, multi-criteria decision making models, Shannon entropy, ANP and WLC weighted combined method and ARC GIS software, Export Choice and Super Decision software have been used for research.
• Shannon entropy model: It was introduced in 1972 by Shannon and Weaver. Shannon's entropy method works by saying that the greater the dispersion in a given index, the more important the index is (Shannon, 1988).
Analytic Network Process (ANP):Network analysis is one of the multi-criteria decision making techniques and the developed form of analytical hierarchy process. This method is used to solve problems in which criteria and options are not independent of each other. In this process, measurement of relative values and significance such as analytic hierarchy process is done by paired comparison.
Weighted Linear Composition (WLC):Weighted linear combination method is the most common technique in multi-criteria evaluation analysis. The purpose of multi-criteria assessment is to select the best option (alternative) based on their ranking through the evaluation of the main multi-criteria. This method is based on the concept of weighted average. Direct analysis and decision making based on the relative importance of the study gives weights to the criteria. The weighted combination method can be implemented using the geographic information system and the overlapping capabilities of this system. It is practical to use this method in both raster and vector GIS formats. After the final value of each option is determined, the options with the highest value will be the most suitable option for the intended purpose.
Shannon Entropy: In Shannon's entropy model, quantitative data collection is used by using questionnaires. In this model, five criteria: precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope and depth of soil were analyzed in seven stages. Data matrix formation was selected based on i option and j index. Then, the normalization of the data matrix numbers was done in order to perform other phases of Shannon's entropy model. The final ranking of the studied options for sorghum cultivation in Ardabil province was based on the studied criteria and after determining the importance factor of the indicators (WJ), the final prioritization of the options was formed by multiplication of the components of the group normalized decision matrix in the importance factor of indicators (WJ) Formation of priority coefficient matrix. Suitable options for sorghum cultivation compared to each index was formed. Finally, from the total row of priority coefficient of each option, the appropriate areas were formed for the Sorghum cultivation was estimated. The results showed that Bilehsavar and Parsabad regions with the degree of importance of 0.105 and 0.095 in terms of the studied criteria are in the appropriate condition for sorghum cultivation in Ardabil province. The results of data analysis based on the method WLC showed that the areas are suitable and very suitable for sorghum fodder cultivation in Ardabil province based on rainfall 49%, temperature 65%, altitude 52%, slope 44% and soil resistance 36%. The results of agricultural climate zoning of sorghum fodder cultivation in Ardabil province with WLC method in GIS environment showed that about 26% are very suitable, 34% are suitable, 35% are slightly suitable and 5% are unsuitable for sorghum fodder cultivation. Also, agricultural climate zoning with Shannon's entropy method showed that about 10% are very suitable, 19% are suitable, 59% are slightly suitable and 12% are unsuitable for sorghum cultivation in Ardabil province. Therefore, based on the methods studied at the level of Ardabil province, in case of water demand, tropical areas such as; Parsabad, Bileh Sowar, Dasht Givi and Ardabil are known to be suitable for sorghum cultivation.