عنوان مقاله [English]
Cosmetics are products that are applied to the body or face to improve appearance. The concept of beauty and makeup is as old as mankind and civilization. All kinds of beauty products such as skin care products, hair products, and perfumes may contain toxic chemicals that can be harmful to human health, especially women. Most cosmetic products contain dangerous chemicals such as parabens, coal tar dyes, phthalates, perfumes, and some heavy metals such as lead, nickel, cadmium, and mercury. Bioaccumulation of these harmful chemicals and metals in the body over time has been associated with cancer, reproductive and developmental disorders, contact dermatitis, hair loss, lung damage, allergies, etc. At present, cosmetic industries have increased the use of compounds with preservative functions, surfactants, perfumes, stains, etc. in the formulation of cosmetic products. Such substances enhance the quality, properties, and durability of cosmetics, but on the other hand, many of these substances are toxic to the human body and pose health risks ranging from simple mild allergic reactions to an anaphylactic process or even fatal poisoning. Therefore, the indiscriminate use of cosmetics may present itself as an emerging public health issue.
Along with the increase in the use of cosmetic products and exposure to their ingredients for a long time and repeatedly, the side effects caused by these products are increasing in the population around the world. Women and men around the world use numerous of cosmetics and health products to achieve beauty, ignoring the possible health risks. Also, cosmetics are emerging pollutants and their environmental monitoring is in the early stages. However, it is known that they enter the environment through multiple routes, often through water, which poses health risks to marine and freshwater ecosystems and ultimately to humans. Hence, in the science of public health, the term “cosmetovigilance" began to represent a type of health supervision in which the goal is to ensure the safety of cosmetic products for commercial purposes. This monitoring is very important for the control of potentially dangerous substances and therefore can put our minds at ease about the products released on the market.
In today's world, the importance of taking care of skin, hair, and beauty has doubled. Of course, beauty has a meaning along with health. Using and buying cosmetics and skin care products has become one of the attractive daily activities of most women, but perhaps few people pay attention to the fact that cosmetics can affect the health of women of all ages and even the health of the fetus during pregnancy. Among a wide range of different brands and products, it is very important to choose the right cosmetics and to know the type of skin and the type of makeup that looks natural and ensures the health of our skin. Using the right cosmetics has benefits such as reducing acne symptoms; skin care against the sun's ultraviolet rays; reducing sweating and bad body odor; increasing the beauty of the appearance; reducing bad breath; Reduction of skin bacteria etc. On the other hand, using inappropriate cosmetics can cause disadvantages such as skin diseases and allergies; damage to eyes, skin, and hair; nail weakness; Cancer and other chronic diseases; premature aging; Headache; risk to genital organs; Addiction to cosmetics and etc.
The indiscriminate use of cosmetics and health products around the world has led to an increase in the types of chemicals used in the manufacture of these products. Therefore, the risk of poisoning, allergic processes, long-term exposure to chemicals, and side effects from excessive use of cosmetic products also increases. Therefore, considering the importance of chemicals in cosmetics and their health effects on human health, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the health effects of cosmetics and health products on human health.
The current research is a descriptive-review study whose data was obtained through library studies and different sources were used to process the materials. Considering the importance of chemical substances in cosmetics and their frequent use and their health effects on human health, we tried to use the most relevant and up-to-date sources containing valuable tips regarding the products as much as possible cosmetics and their effects on human health. In this review study, the classification of cosmetics and their effects have been discussed first. Then the harmful substances in the cosmetics were investigated and then the ingredients prohibited in the composition of the cosmetics were pointed out and then the topics related to the health and environmental hazards of some chemicals in the cosmetics were studied. Finally, necessary solutions and recommendations were presented in order to reduce the adverse effects of cosmetics on human health.
Cosmetics and beauty products, although not essential for physical health, help a lot in providing mental health and self-confidence. They are widely used in all countries of the world, especially among women of all ages, even with awareness of their harmful effects on human health. In addition, cosmetics and beauty products are used even by children and elderly people who are more exposed to toxicity due to the easier absorption of chemicals and toxic substances through their skin. Cosmetic products are not very good for human health because they contain more than 10,000 substances that can be linked to disease. Due to the continuous use of cosmetics, people are exposed to side effects such as skin rashes, contact dermatitis, allergies, skin redness, high blood pressure, diabetes, kidney failure and cancer, type IV hypersensitivity, etc., which are toxic substances. Used in the preparation of related cosmetics.
The contents of chemicals and heavy metals in cosmetic products may harm consumers. Various studies as well as this research showed that cosmetic products may contain or absorb heavy metals, which can be a potential global threat to people's health and hygiene. It has also been proven that the long-term effect of using cosmetic products has the capacity to affect the health of the consumer. Therefore, long-term continuous use of cosmetic products should be avoided because the heavy metals in these products, such as mercury, lead, arsenic and cadmium, are easily absorbed through the skin. Products containing heavy metals can lead to the development of diseases. A large number of chemicals are incorporated into the complex formulation of cosmetic products to improve the beauty, health, and quality of human life. However, based on a review of the literature related to cosmetics and this study, many of these substances, especially heavy metals, are bioactive and environmentally persistent and show potential bioaccumulation, meaning any traces of exposure accumulate. Heavy metals are stored in bones and remain in our bodies for decades. There is no completely safe and effective way to detoxify heavy metals. Therefore, excessive, extensive, and long-term exposure to such compounds can be a serious threat to human health and the environment.
Also, the chemicals used in cosmetic products have a direct effect on the hormonal systems of the human body. People should be warned about the presence of toxic substances in cosmetic products. The implementation of a global cosmetic care system is crucial to encourage changes and reforms in the production, marketing and use of cosmetic products by the general population. Such a system increases the safety of these products and their ingredients and prevents the adverse effects of these products. Also, more comprehensive studies should be conducted on the acute or chronic toxicity of these worrisome pollutants to enable more careful monitoring and explicit inspection of their tangible health and environmental risks. It is very important to conduct studies to investigate the adverse effects of cosmetics. It is recommended that researchers around the world, especially from developing and underdeveloped countries, conduct more recent studies, especially on the adverse effects of cosmetics. Finally, information about the environmental and health impacts of cosmetic products on their packaging will reassure consumers and encourage more conscious and responsible use of these products, and consumers should also play their role by keeping their knowledge and awareness of the ingredients up to date to perform in the products it uses.