نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 عضو هیات علمی گروه اقتصاد محیط زیست پژوهشکده محیط زیست و توسعه پایدار
2 استادیار، پژوهشکده محیط زیست و توسعه پایدار، سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست، تهران، ایران
3 دکترای اقلیم شناسی کشاورزی، گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Natural tourism is estimated to account for approximately 27% of international travel and, when properly managed, can create local employment and local development formats as well as preserve the natural environment (Ryngnga, 2008). The function of the recreation area is one of the most important cultural services of national parks. The environment and its sustainable development for optimal use, has been considered by many countries, politicians and thinkers in the field of natural, economic and social resources. The expansion of forest parks, centralized and extensive promenades, following this idea, has a special place (Ping, 2014). National Park and Protected Area of Karkheh is located in a narrow strip on both sides of the Karkheh River. The physical and chemical status of river water has a direct impact on the ecosystem services of the region. The ecosystem services of this region are diverse and one of the most prominent is the recreational function. Presenting the economic value of this function leads to raising awareness of its importance and revealing the benefits of conservation and sustainable use of the protected area among local stakeholders as well as for decision makers to further protect these ecosystems. The importance and role of economic valuation of the recreational function of Karkheh National Park and its protected area has unfortunately been ignored in the present studies. Given the importance of this function and explaining its economic value, the present study specifically deals with the economic evaluation of the recreational function of the National Park and the Protected Area of Karkheh.
To determine the economic value of a resort, the ecological carrying capacity and willingness to pay visitors must first be calculated. Therefore, the following is an estimate of these two factors in the study area.
• Determining the capacity of the ecological carrying
Ecological carrying Capacity (ECC) is the maximum number of visitors to a recreational environment that, due to the limiting factors that result from the specific conditions of the place and the impact of these factors on the physical carrying capacity, are allowed to visit that place. To act. These limiting factors are obtained by considering biophysical, ecological, social and managerial conditions and variables (Lee and Han, 2002).
In this study, physical board capacity (PCC) is obtained from Equation 1:
PCC ₌ A * (v / a) * Rf
In this regard, A is the area of tourism-prone areas. v / a is the ratio of the number of tourists allowed per unit of tourism level. V is equivalent to one visitor and a is the amount of space the visitor needs to be able to move easily and not interfere with other physical phenomena or people. The ecological carrying capacity is obtained from Equation 2):
RCC₌ PCC- Cf₁- Cf₂-… Cfₓ
Where Cf is a limiting factor of each region and the limiting factors depend entirely on the specific conditions and characteristics of each region. Limiting factors are expressed as a percentage. The percentage of limiting factors are obtained based on the following formula (Lee and Han, 2002):
CF₌ M₁ / M * 100
In this formula, M1 is the limiting value of a variable and M is the total value of the variable. In this study, the soil of the region due to high erosion potential, the presence of Iranian yellow deer species in the region and days with very high temperatures have been considered as limiting factors.
• Average willingness to pay
The two-dimensional selection method has been used for the willingness of people to pay. In this study, a questionnaire consists of two parts, the first part includes socio-economic characteristics of individuals such as age, gender, education, occupation, number of family members, income and other characteristics of respondents and the second part is related to the amount. Willingness to pay people is designed. In the second part of the questionnaire, three offered prices of 3000, 5000 and 10000 Rials are presented as three interrelated questions.
Estimated values must also be adjusted in relation to expected changes in price levels over time, otherwise: the results of cost-benefit analysis are not reliable. Therefore, two types of corrections are necessary (Mishkin, 2009):
1) Determining the present value: takes into account the opportunity cost of money.
2) Inflation correction: adjustment of changes in price levels.
Preliminary estimates of cost-benefit should also be adjusted for changes in price levels over time, called inflation adjustment. To adjust the price of a dollar at the present time according to the expected inflation in the future, its value must be converted to its nominal value at the desired time. Nominal value means the set value of the value for the current time. Real value also means the adjusted amount of value with respect to the effect of inflation.
• Determining the range capacity of the National Park and North Protected Area of Karkheh
According to the results, the total real (ecological) range capacity of the North, South National Park and the North Protected Area of Karkheh, most of which is forest cover, is 117,007 people.
• Determining the range capacity of the South Karkheh Protected Area
Also, the protected area of South Karkheh, whose prominent natural feature is the Karkheh River, has a capacity of 62,543 real (ecological) capacity.
- Recreational value in North and South National Park and North Protected Area of Karkheh
The results show that the average willingness to pay is 5540 Rials in 1397. Considering the inflation rate in 1398 which is equal to 34.8%, this amount in 1398 is equal to 7467.92 Rials. Considering that the ecological range capacity of North and South National Park and North Protected Area of Karkheh is equal to 117,007 people, so the recreational value of North and South National Park and North Karkheh Protected Area is 873.8 million Rials.
- Recreational value in the protected area of South Karkheh
The results showed that the willingness of people to pay in the protected area of South Karkheh for natural landscape and recreation is 127810 Rials, for ecological performance is 212270 Rials and for educational performance is 152560 Rials. Therefore, the figure of 127810 Rials is considered as the recreational value of each visitor for the protected area of South Karkheh. Of course, according to the average inflation rate during the years 1394 to 1398, which is equal to 18.46 percent, this amount in 1398 is equal to 297797.3 rials.
Therefore, considering that the amount of ecological range capacity in the protected area of South Karkheh is 62543 people per year, the recreational value of this area is 18625.14 million Rials.
Therefore, in total, the real (ecological) range capacity in the whole study area is 179,550 people. Therefore, the recreational value of Karkheh National Park and Protected Area is a total of 19498.94 million Rials (873.8 + 18625.14 million Rials). Considering that the area of lands providing ecotourism ecosystem services in Karkheh National Park and Protected Area is 1310.49 hectares, so the value of each hectare is 14.88 million Rials. Therefore, according to Table 1) the real value of recreational function in the entire national park and Karkheh protected area with inflation correction in 1398 is estimated to be equal to 16276.24 million rials. The real value of recreation per hectare of the study area has been estimated with inflation correction equal to 12.42 million rials.