عنوان مقاله [English]
Population growth, the proliferation of motor vehicles, the rise of industry, and the life of human societies in general, along with growing technology, are among the causes of abnormal noise that causes noise pollution. The effects of noise pollution are harmful and threaten the health of living organisms, especially humans. Industrial development improves the quality of human life, which in the absence of proper and accurate control, causes environmental pollution.With the mechanization of life, noise pollution has penetrated the most private parts of citizens' lives. This has been particularly effective for high-risk groups such as children, the elderly, pregnant women, and the mentally ill. Therefore, it is clear that today in urban life, we are witnessing the occurrence of environmental pollutants such as noise pollution, which is currently one of the most important environmental pollution affecting the health of citizens. In recent years, noise pollution has always been one of the main concerns of living in urban environments and has affected the quality of life of people around the world. Noise pollution is known as one of the factors affecting the quality of human life.
Environmental pollution has attracted more and more global attention in the last three decades. Meanwhile, the issue of noise pollution in cities in most countries, is a global problem that is considered an important category to determine the quality of life of citizens. With these descriptions, it can be said that this phenomenon is clearly visible a serious risk factor, especially in the crowded and noisy intersections of the city. On the other hand, the situation of noise pollution and its influential components in busy and crowded squares and intersections can be an income for the gradual organization of the relevant problems. However, this problem is a long-standing and obvious problem in cities, especially in busy intersections. These squares and intersections have not been examined as they should be and perhaps in terms of noise pollution status in order to have specific reactions in proportion to the load of noise pollution and the reflection of its effects. And it is not clear which of the city's intersections has more noise pollution than the other to prioritize intervention for planning and management to reduce this phenomenon. Therefore, in "Study", the situation of noise pollution in squares and busy intersections of Ardabil in three specific time intervals during the day has been investigated.
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of research method. The required information has collected in the form of field studies and the use of questionnaires, interviews, observations and library-documentary studies according to the nature of the problem and the purpose of the research. In order to assess the situation of noise pollution during three different hours in squares and central and busy intersections of Ardabil city, different components were selected. The statistical population of the study consists of citizens of Ardabil, which has 525,702 people, of which 382 people were selected as a sample based on Cochran's formula. In order to increase the accuracy of the work, a total of 420 questionnaires were distributed and completed by stratified random sampling method (70 questionnaires for each of the selected fields). The results of calculating the Cronbach's alpha test for a questionnaire of 0.823 were obtained, which indicates the high reliability of the research tool.All data processing steps were performed with Excel and SPSS software, and finally measuring and determining the time of noise pollution at different hours in the range The study was conducted using Friedman test, which has a high scientific validity in this field. Since it is appropriate to use Friedman test for intra-group designs (dependent samples), so in the present study, Friedman test has been used. This means that the Friedman test is a generalized Wilcoxon test and is the nonparametric equivalent of the repeated measures test. In this test, we have a group of people or subjects who have been assessed in at least two situations or two different time periods. The goal is to compare changes in scores (median) over several (2 or more) situations or time periods. Researchers generally use this test to rank or prioritize.
Environmental pollution has attracted more and more global attention in the last three decades. Meanwhile, the issue of noise pollution in cities in most countries, is a global problem that is considered as an important category to determine the quality of life of citizens. Since the pollution situation in different squares is not the same, for this purpose, recognizing the severity and weakness of this problem in each of the squares and intersections of the city and the variables affecting it can improve the performance and better decision of city managers in Have the above dilemma. Therefore, in Study 2, the situation of noise pollution in squares and busy intersections of Ardabil in three specific time intervals during the day has been investigated. Based on the status of noise pollution by components affecting it and according to the results of the implementation of Friedman test extracted from the questionnaire, the highest level of pollution in Shariati Square and then the market in the third period and the lowest level of pollution in all 3 time periods. Sarein station is dedicated. In view of the problem in order to reduce and control noise pollution in the studied squares and intersections, the following solutions are proposed:
The most important and practical action in this field is voice control. Because the highest amount of noise pollution in these areas is due to the movement of cars and motorcycles; Culture-building to avoid any noise pollution through the media in the field of familiarity with the rights and duties of citizenship; Strengthen the green cover of the range; Designing and proposing the withdrawal of new street constructions and the creation of a green terrace; Encourage people to use public transportation or bicycles and walk, organize the location of stations and vehicle stops and paths leading to intersections; Use of urban furniture resistant to atmospheric factors to eliminate abnormal noises; Use of sound barriers such as vertical walls with wood, plaster, glass, concrete, stone, tall and wide metals suitable for street spaces; Construction of green space; Increasing the level of urban green space, especially trees, to reduce pollution and consequently prevent physical and mental complications in residents.
Keywords: Noise pollution; Noise pollution generator; Traffic squares and intersections; Ardabil city