عنوان مقاله [English]
Over the past few decades, the pattern of food consumption in many countries of the world has been influenced by lifestyle changes. One of the most prominent is the increase in food consumption outside the home. Food hygiene and its distribution areas have been considered, because the slightest negligence leads to many problems for the individual and society. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers foodborne diseases to be one of the most important problems in the contemporary world, which is increasing in developed and developing countries. The rise of foodborne illness around the world has led to widespread government efforts to improve food safety and health. The major part of food contamination is in the stages of preparation, storage, transportation, distribution and also under the influence of individual, physical and functional factors of food preparation and distribution centers, which monitor food hygiene in these steps can prevent diseases and health problems. Environmental health indicators of food preparation and distribution centers should always be considered because of the direct relationship with the health of consumers. Today, health training courses are held with the aim of increasing the level of awareness of food supply center operators and consequently reducing the incidence of health problems and foodborne illnesses. One of the goals of health education is to prevent health problems and achieve desirable individual and collective behaviors in relation to health issues and affairs. Given the importance of the role of health education, it seems that holding efficient training courses can effectively help improve the health performance of food preparation and distribution center operators. In various studies, the role of education in the attitude and behavior of different groups has been studied, but so far no study has been conducted to evaluate the usefulness of health courses held for all public places and food preparation and distribution centers and accurate information not available in this case. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of implementing health courses for food services staff regarding health indicators.
The statistical population of the study was all food preparation and distribution centers in Baft city, including 8 restaurants and 15 food preparation and distribution centers. All of them were surveyed by census in the present descriptive cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria included activities as a center for cooking and food distribution regardless of whether or not to pass a health course. The data collection tool was a checklist extracted from the form of the regulations of the health regulations of food preparation and distribution centers and public places in three sections: personal hygiene, building health and improvement, and hygiene of tools and equipment. The work was done in a total of 42 questions. The checklists were completed by researchers in collaboration with environmental health experts and in the form of field observations and interviews with relevant officials. Each of the questions included three options: "Compliance with regulations", "Non-compliance with regulations" and "Does not apply", each of which was assigned scores of 1, 1- and 0, respectively. In each of these cases, the scores were collected and according to these scores, classification was performed at three levels: favorable (above 60%), moderate (30% to 60%), and unfavorable (less than 30%). Findings were statistically analyzed by Excel and SPSS software version 19 and the significance level was 0.05 (analytical statistics: Fisher's exact test, descriptive statistics: number and frequency percentage). In order to observe the ethics of the research, ethics code was obtained IR.SIRUMS.REC.1399.024 from the esteemed deputy of research and technology of Sirjan University of Medical Sciences. The results of the present study showed that about half of the restaurants had poor personal health status and among the items examined, the personal hygiene index of restaurants was the lowest value related to passing the guild training course, so that only 37.5% of The waiters, workers and employees of the restaurants had passed the guild training course (Figure 1). In the present study, about 87% of employees of restaurants and ready-to-eat food preparation and distribution centers had health cards. Although based on the information in Figure 1, in general, the state of personal hygiene in restaurants in the city of Baft was assessed as weaker than ready-made food distribution and distribution centers and personal hygiene was reported to be good in only 12.5% of restaurants (Table 1). Based on the results of the statistical test, there was no significant difference between personal hygiene in restaurants and ready-to-eat food preparation and distribution centers (P = 0.152). Regarding the status of the building improvement and hygiene index, unlike restaurants (Figure 2), among the food preparation and distribution centers, the lowest score was related to the optimal storage conditions for perishable food, of which only 40% were in good condition. As shown in Table 2, based on Fisher's exact test, no significant difference was observed between the training of guilds and personal hygiene, building improvement and hygiene, and hygiene of tools and equipment in the food preparation and distribution centers (P˃0.05) which shows that the training courses does not have much effect on the performance of these centers and more efforts are needed to increase the efficiency of these courses.
Achieving optimal health conditions in restaurants and ready-to-eat food preparation and distribution centers is of special importance due to its direct relationship with people's health. The research showed that in some cases, there are shortcomings in personal hygiene, hygiene of tools and equipment, improvement and building hygiene, and some parameters do not have favorable conditions. About half of the restaurants had poor personal hygiene, and only 37.5% of restaurant attendants, workers and employees had received guild training. 12.5% and 60% of restaurants and ready-to-eat food preparation and distribution centers, respectively, had poor building hygiene. The health status of tools and equipment was unsatisfactory in 62.5% of restaurants and 26.7% of food preparation and distribution centers. Based on the results obtained from Fisher's exact test, no significant difference was observed between passing the guild training course and performance in all three sections of personal hygiene, tool hygiene, improvement and building hygiene (P˃0.05). Therefore, holding classes in the current way does not have a significant impact on improving the performance of restaurants and ready-to-eat food preparation and distribution centers, and improving the quality of these courses requires more attention from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in monitoring centers. Relevant, in particular, is cooperation and partnership to improve the quality of trade union training and thus promote public health and prevention of foodborne illness.