عنوان مقاله [English]
Walking is a human behavior and activity that can be discussed from different aspects. From one perspective, walking is a kind of physical activity and sports. Among the types of physical activity, walking is the most accessible type of activity that almost all age groups can benefit from without paying . On the other hand, walking can be It was considered as a method of transportation instead of motor transportation .In recent decades, with the significant increase in the share of motorized vehicles in urban transportation, walking has lost its position as an active mode of travel, and in recent years, traffic problems such as congestion, pollution and lack of development resources have intensified. Transportation infrastructure, especially in developing countries, on the one hand, and the decline in physical activity indicators, on the other hand, have made walking as a clean transportation method considered by urban decision makers .With all the benefits of walking, in recent years one of the main problems of cities is being car-centered and in contrast to the lack of walking in them, which is not good for the health, family and community of cities. And walking, as one of the options of sustainable transportation, has faced major problems and challenges. In the case of Ardabil, the problem is that despite the increase in the presence of private cars, sidewalks and sidewalks have no place in the field of new spatial planning of this city. In order to prevent the weakening of the role of pedestrians and to encourage citizens to walk, it is necessary to check the quality of sidewalks in order to take steps to improve them. In this regard, the main purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of sidewalks in the five areas of Ardabil for future planning. Based on this, this research seeks to answer the following questions:
- What is the status of sidewalk criteria in the five areas of Ardabil?
- According to the studied criteria, what is the priority of quality of sidewalks in the 5 districts of Ardabil?
The present study is a descriptive-analytical study with an applied purpose. In this study, the quality of sidewalks in Ardabil in order to standardize their spatial structure in the form of 4 indicators (physical, accessibility, environmental, safety and security) and 54 sub-criteria have been studied .The selection of criteria is based on library and documentary studies. The statistical population of this study is the five districts of Ardabil and a questionnaire was used to collect statistics and information. The content validity of the questionnaire questions was confirmed by professors and experts and the reliability of the questionnaire was obtained using Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.812. Cochran's formula was used to obtain the statistical sample size, which was estimated to be 382 with an error rate of 0.05 and a 95% confidence interval. In order to increase the accuracy of work, 400 questionnaires (80 questionnaires for each region) were randomly distributed in Ardabil city. After indexing, first the average of each index was calculated using SPSS software and then after weighting the studied indices using Shannon entropy method, the target areas were ranked in Excel using COPRAS model. . Table 1 shows the criteria and sub-criteria used in the present study.
Multi-criteria decision models (MCDMs), sometimes called multi-objective decision models and multi-criteria analysis models, are actually a set of methods that allow decision makers to consider A set of criteria (often contradictory) to select, rank, sort, or describe a set of options in the decision-making process .Many models have been proposed for multi-criteria decisions, each of which has advantages and limitations (Poor Taheri, 1392: 37). The most important features of Coopras multi-criteria decision model compared to other multi-criteria decision models can be mentioned as follows:
1- It is clear that this model is simpler than other models such as AHP and TOPSIS and requires less time for calculations compared to these methods.
2. Coopers can provide a complete ranking of options.
3- This model is able to use both quantitative and qualitative criteria to calculate the criteria.
4. Coopers has the ability to calculate positive (maximum) and negative (minimum) criteria separately in the evaluation process.
5. Another important feature that makes the Coopras decision model superior to other decision models is that it can estimate the degree of importance of each option and show it by percentage to what extent a better option or It is worse and in this respect to make a complete comparison between the options.
The following is a calculation of the Coopras model.
Step 1: Form the initial matrix
After determining the weight of the criteria, the decision matrix is formed as the first step of the Coopers model. The decision matrix means that the options are on one side of the matrix and the criteria are on the other.
Step 2: Form a collective decision matrix
In this step, the respondents' opinions are aggregated using the arithmetic mean.
Step 3: Formation of normalized (weighted) matrix
To weight the decision matrix, using Equation (1), the values of each option are multiplied by their weight and divided by the sum of the values.
Relationship (1): dij =
In this formula, qi is the weight of the i index and xij is the value of each option per criterion:
Step 4: Calculate the value of positive and negative criteria (Sj- & Sj-)
In this step, we calculate the positive sj + criteria using Equation (2) and the negative sj- criteria using Equation (3). A positive or consistent criterion is a criterion that, as its value increases, its desirability increases, but for negative criteria, the desirability decreases as the value increases. After determining the positive and negative criteria, the final value of the positive and negative criteria should be calculated using equations (2) and (3).
Relationship (2): Sj+
Relationship (3): Sj-
Step 5: Calculate the final value of the options (Q value)
In this step, the final value of each option (Q) is calculated. In this section, first 1 is divided by Sj and then according to Equation (4), the value of Q is calculated for each option, in which the value of Q indicates the value and importance of each option in terms of criteria.
Step 6: Determine the desirability of the options
Finally, using Equation (5), the option with a degree of desirability close to one is the best option. That is, it is enough to divide the number Q among the numbers obtained in the previous step by the maximum Q. The total value of each criterion varies from 0 to 100% and the best and worst option is determined among this range.
In this study, in order to evaluate the quality of sidewalks in Ardabil, a 5-point Likert scale was used and ranks 1 to 5 were assigned to the answers. A score of 1 indicates the lowest quality and a score of 5 indicates the highest quality of the relevant criteria. Is. Thus, the number 3 is considered as the theoretical median of the answers and the average obtained from the quality of the sidewalks is compared to the number 3. Based on the results of statistical calculations, the average of the total quality of sidewalk quality criteria is equal to 3.14 and is average. Among these, the lowest average is related to environment (2.87) and the highest average is related to safety and security criteria (3.45). Using multi-criteria decision models, it is possible to make a comparison of the available options and find out the favorable and unfavorable status of the available options. Based on this, in the present study, an attempt has made to prioritize the quality of sidewalks in Ardabil using the COPRAS model. In the Coopers model, the option that has the best status in terms of criteria is identified with the highest degree of Nj importance, which is equal to 100%; Accordingly, region two with Nj equal to 100% in terms of the studied criteria has the best situation among the five regions of Ardabil and region four with the lowest percentage is in the most unfavorable situation.