عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, population growth, urban development and economic prosperity, increasing the quality of life and increasing consumer choice have led to an increase in the amount of waste produced in urban communities. Since waste production is inevitable in any society and waste management is considered as one of the key environmental issues and therefore there is a growing demand to analyze and compare the efficiency and environmental and technical effects of various waste management policies. Is.
According to the amount of waste produced in the world, more than 70% of this waste is not properly reused or recycled, and this indicates a lack of large volumes of resources and a lot of pressure on the primary resources of the planet. Regular problems with solid waste management are very complex due to the multiplicity of factors, such as the quantity and quality of waste generated, the rapid expansion of urban areas, financing problems, rapid technological advances, as well as energy and raw material constraints.
Municipal solid waste management in developing countries is a complex issue due to rapid population growth, rapid and unplanned urbanization, and public health problems due to a lack of adequate health infrastructure. In addition, governments' ability to manage waste is limited, and this partnership is often inefficient and inadequate. Also, the existence of informal workers, people's resistance to pay for services, inefficient collection system, illegal burial and lack of a clear legal framework are other problems in this sector.
In Iran, according to statistics, one-fifth of the country's household waste is produced in Tehran, which produces 320 kg per year of municipal waste. According to the Tehran Municipal Recycling Organization, the economic value of Tehran's organic waste, which accounts for about 70 percent, is estimated at $ 250 million a year. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the collection system will mean environmental development, improving the urban landscape and storing economic resources.
Considering that the city of Tehran as the capital of the country and its large population needs useful and effective waste management and Tehran Municipality has taken effective measures in this regard, but the problem of final waste disposal in Tehran is still one of the most important concerns of urban management. A significant part of the problems can be imagined by identifying the effective factors in waste management, which are sometimes also a major challenge, and create the conditions to achieve a logical relationship between the container and the container. It is necessary to identify the drivers of waste management promotion. Therefore, this study intends to plan for municipal waste management based on a new planning perspective, using specific futures research methods. In this regard, and considering the nature of the research, this research has been conducted with the aim of answering the question that; What are the key drivers of promoting waste management in Tehran?
The present research is applied in terms of purpose and exploratory research in terms of the nature of the subject. The required data and information have been collected through documentary-field and field libraries (questionnaires). At this stage of the research, the questionnaire was completed by the elites in the field of urban development and waste management by snowball method (10 experts). In this regard and in order to analyze the data, after extracting the effective factors in urban waste management through theoretical foundations and using expert opinions, content analysis (CVR) was performed, then a questionnaire of interaction was asked of experts and finally, the propellants were identified using structural-interpretive modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis.
Content analysis for factor validity using the opinions of 10 experts, showed that out of 43 primary factors, 20 factors have obtained a coefficient (CVR) above 0.75 to be considered the final factors of this research (expert workforce, Motivational schemes, consumption pattern, revenue generation, segregation scheme, partnership, waste segregation organizations, natural resource protection, environmental hazards, educational and cultural programs, public social awareness, investment, planning Implementation of operations, infrastructure, financial resources and budget, advanced technology, research, comprehensive waste management plan, layout and management expertise and foresight are the most important factors in promoting urban waste management. Using the retest method, they showed that the questionnaire has acceptable reliability (the reliability of the first time is equal to 0.794 and the second time is 0.807).
Regarding the identification of waste management improvement factors that used structural-interpretive modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis, the findings showed that research and research factors and expertise and management efficiency with penetration rate of 18 have the greatest impact and protection of natural resources and hazards. Environment with the penetration rate of 1 had the least impact.
The results obtained from the classification of research variables also showed that in the group of autonomous variables, specialized labor force factors (X11) and motivational schemes (X20) are included (factors that have weak influence and dependence). In the group of dependent variables, consumption pattern factors (X2), revenue generation (X7), source separation plan (X18), partnership (X1), waste segregation organizations (X5), natural resource protection (X9) and environmental hazards (X10) (factors that have high influence, power and dependence, and in fact, any action on these variables will change other variables). In the group of related variables, the factors of educational and cultural programs (X3), public social awareness (X4), investment (X8), planning and execution of operations (X12) and infrastructure (X14) are included. (Factors that have a high degree of influence (stimulus) and dependence. In fact, any action on these variables will change other variables) and in the group of independent variables (key), financial resources and budget (X6), Advanced technology (X13), research (X15), master plan for waste management (X16), productivity and management expertise (X17) and foresight (X19) (factors that have high penetration and low dependence These factors act as the structural cornerstone of the system and must be emphasized in the first place for a fundamental change in system performance.
In this study, based on this logic (which is a useful method to discover the factors governing the promotion of urban waste management, interpretive structural research model due to the use of expert opinions and content validity) the most important factors to improve management were tried. Tehran municipal waste should be identified and the impact of each of them on each other should be analyzed. In this regard, the results showed that among the 20 important factors studied, factors of financial resources and budget, advanced technology, research, comprehensive plan of waste management, productivity and management expertise and foresight), compared to other factors of priority They have a lot to improve waste management and in fact the key to improving waste management is to improve these factors. In emphasizing these factors, one should not neglect other factors. Therefore, it can be inferred that by attaching importance to conducting more and more quality research, improving technology and its proper use, financing and increasing government budget, employing efficient, effective and specialized management, having plans Codified and foresighted and finally the comprehensive plan of waste management, we will see the improvement of waste management in Tehran. It should be noted that the above factors are interrelated with each other in a chain. In such a way that by improving the situation of each factor, the ground is prepared for the improvement of the next factors. For example, funding and increasing government funding and improving the quality of research can advance technology and its use, and increase its management capacity and effectiveness.