عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, most resources are consumed in cities with high economic importance and poor environmental performance. Air pollution, for example, is largely due to the growth of cities and plays a major role in climate change. In order to overcome such problems, the concept of smart city has been proposed as a sustainable approach, so that it can lead to the formation of cities with the least pollution, efficient cities, storage of energy and time. In other words, environmental problems and the need to develop more sustainable cities are the focus of many smart city projects. Smart cities in many developed countries have focused on energy and sustainability issues.
Smart tourism is a new applied term that describes the growing dependence of tourism destinations, industries and different forms of tourists on new forms of information and communication technology that turn large volumes of data into valuable propositions.
All intelligence efforts are large, coordinated efforts and strategic investments to innovate, improve quality of life and sustainability by enriching physical infrastructure with data in the field. Reinforce specific purposes.
The vast country of Iran is one of the best countries in the world to implement the tourism industry due to its climatic, climatic, cultural and ancient conditions. Therefore, the changing needs of customers (travelers) must be continuously identified and its basic points, ie satisfaction, safety and pleasure of passengers, must be identified. Therefore, examining the infrastructure requirements for the implementation of smart tourism in Iran is an important challenge for researchers.
Problems of developing cities such as Ardabil, which face many challenges such as the risk of environmental pollution, reduced quality of life, poor communication in terms of time and distance, and conflict of interests of affected people and tourists; Facing these problems indicates the need for a new approach to urban planning. The development of smart urban tourism by emphasizing on improving the quality of urban living environment, the quality of tourism spaces and creating a texture to improve the interactions of people, especially tourists in the urban space can play an important role in reducing the city's problems and sustainability. In this regard, the main purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of developing smart tourism in Ardabil with emphasis on sustainable development.
This research is descriptive-analytical in terms of method and applied in terms of purpose. The data required for this research were collected through documentary and field (questionnaire). The statistical population of this research is tourists and experts in the field of tourism in Ardabil. Due to the uncertainty of their number, the sampling method available to 50 tourists and the snowball method for experts were used. 20 people progress to the stage of theoretical saturation. The measurement tool is a standard questionnaire that has already been examined (confirmation of the validity and reliability of the questionnaire). This feasibility questionnaire was prepared using the Telus technique and finally, t-test and independent t-test in the form of SPSS software were used to analyze the data collected from the questionnaire.
To enable the development of smart tourism in Ardabil, the Telus technique with 5 known dimensions and 28 questions / components related to the research topic were used by tourists and experts in Ardabil and the results of t-test showed that the highest average of 37 3.3 is related to the timing dimension and the lowest average of 3.06 is related to the economic dimension. Considering the average value of the dimensions, which show a number in the theoretical average (theoretical average = 3) and a little more than that, it can be said that the possibility of developing smart tourism in Ardabil is above average. (Figure 2, Table 3).
Regarding the significance of the test for dimensions, it can be said that the average of the two technical and economic dimensions does not show a significant difference with the theoretical average of the research (theoretical average = 3); Because the obtained averages (experimental mean) are close to the theoretical mean of 3 and (small mean difference, t-value less than 1.96 positive or negative and error level greater than 0.05), but the other dimensions of feasibility (operational, legal And timing) are significant at level 95, ie there is a significant difference between the theoretical mean and their obtained means (experimental mean). Regarding the general average of the possibility of developing smart tourism in Ardabil, the same situation prevails. The possibility of developing smart tourism in Ardabil is on average rising (overall average is equal to 3.23). This content is confirmed by t-test at a significance level of 95%. That is, there is a significant difference between the theoretical mean (3) and the obtained means (experimental mean of feasibility 3.23). Because, firstly, there is a relatively high mean difference (0.23), secondly, the value of the obtained t-statistic (2.16) is greater than the value of the standard t-statistic (greater than 1.96, whether positive or negative), thirdly, the value of sig or error level. Obtained for one-sample t-test is less than 0.05 (0.013).
Also, since the statistical population of the study is composed of two groups and it is possible that opinions are different, therefore, an independent t-test was used to examine the opinions of experts and citizens, and the results showed differences between the average opinions of experts and citizens. There is no significance and in fact the average of opinions is close.
Today, one of the most important and basic strategies for sustainable development of cities is the development of tourism, with an emphasis on smartening, which in this regard is also necessary to examine the possibility of their development.
In this regard, the results of research on five dimensions of feasibility study that used 28 components for smart urban tourism, showed that from the perspective of two communities of experts and tourists, the possibility of developing smart tourism in Ardabil is on average is high. All five dimensions of technical, economic, operational, legal and timing are above average and that there is no significant difference between the average views of the two communities of experts and tourists.
The results of this study regarding the average level of possibility of developing smart tourism in Ardabil are consistent with the results of Mokhtari and Soleimani (2014) and Yaghoubi (2017) based on the average possibility of developing smart tourism in Yasuj and Ilam cities.