عنوان مقاله [English]
Hawthorn with scientific name Crataegus spp. It belongs to the Rosacea genus, which has more than a thousand species of hawthorn in the world, twenty-two species in Iran, and nine species in East Azerbaijan. The use of hawthorn tree for the rootstock of apple and pear trees is unknown in Iran, but in many parts of the world, hawthorn species (Crataegus.azarolus) is used as a rootstock for pears (Willimas) and apples (Golden Delicious), which causes dwarfing and Early fruiting in the mentioned cultivars is pear and apple. One of the main problems of dwarf pear cultivation in Iran is the lack of dwarfing or semi- dwarfing rootstocks compatible with cultivars and conditions of calcareous and dry soils, which has caused the lack of orchards with dwarf pears. Hawthorn can be used as a suitable rootstock for pear due to its compatibility with calcareous soils and relative tolerance to drought. For dwarfing, early fruiting and prevention of chlorosis caused by iron deficiency, resistant hawthorn rootstock can be used in pear orchards.One of the ways to identify species, new breeds or genetic originality in plants is the use of molecular markers. The problems of using molecular markers, both costly and time-consuming, make the need to use other methods inevitable. The basis of new digital technologies for analyzing the shape and color in leaves and fruits is, in simple language, the extraction of digital information from the shape and color in leaves and fruits. This technology can be used to evaluate a variety of techniques used by botanists.This technology is able to evaluate the amount of phenotypic diversity between the plant mass in a particular area, if the amount of phenotypic diversity is high, that area can be investigated and emphasized more in terms of genetic reservoir, center of plant diversity, or even the origin of the plant. The analysis of the shape and color in leaves and fruits shows the diversity in a mass. With this technology, identification and comparison of the phenotypic homogeneity or heterogeneity of a plant mass is done with minimal time and minimum cost compared to other methods. This technology will be suitable and affordable for research work. In the RGB colorimetric model. There are different types of anthocyanins that can be stored in different parts of the plant such as leaves, flowers, fruits, etc. Anthocyanin is one of the types of secondary metabolites of the flavonoid category, which is a pigment soluble in water, and the plant produces this substance to withstand stress and adverse environmental conditions such as high ultraviolet radiation, high salinity, low temperature, and high dryness. Increasing the height above the sea level with increasing the intensity of sunlight and the amount of ultraviolet rays and decreasing the temperature at night during the coloring and ripening of the fruit, the total content of anthocyanin in the skin of the fruit increases and the skin of the fruit becomes more colorful. Increasing the amount of anthocyanin in the fruit also increases the resistance of the fruit against all kinds of pests and diseases. Increasing the altitude above sea level and increasing the intensity of ultraviolet rays and low temperature gradually changes the color of the anthocyanin of the fruit skin from yellow to orange and then to pale red and then to deep red. This research is based on the evaluation of phototypic diversity of hawthorn plant in Sahand protected area using the method of fruit color appearance evaluation and also the complementary evaluation of fruit color with two digital colorimetry models in hawthorn and comparing the results of these two methods. Evaluation of phenotypic diversity with digital colorimetry can be a suitable alternative in comparison with the method of molecular markers due to its low cost and time saving. The method can be used to evaluate the center of diversity, origin and genetic reserve of a plant in a region.Sahand Protected Area is one of the important habitats and genetic reserves of hawthorn in East Azerbaijan province, between Tabriz city and Maragheh city, which is located at an altitude of 1500 to 3400 meters above sea level. This area is located at 46 degrees east longitude and 37 degrees north latitude with an area of sixty thousand hectares. 156 plant species have been identified in this habitat, 26 of which are endangered. Field studies have been carried out in the range of Hawthorn in the protected area of Sahand at an altitude of 1500 to 2200 meters above sea level. Sampling of hawthorn fruit from 21/07/1399 to 21/08/1399 from a height of 1500 meters to 2200 meters above sea level located at coordinates 37 degrees North and 46 degrees East in our area between Tabriz city and Maragheh city in the region The Sahand reserve was established in East Azarbaijan province with an area of sixty thousand hectares. The high dispersion of individual hawthorn trees in Sahand protected area and the lack of expected density in hawthorn trees caused the fruits of each tree to be considered as an independent population. From each population, fifteen fully colored fruit samples without damage and without crushing, and a total of nine hundred fruit samples from sixty separate populations were collected and selected using equipment including GPS, gardening shears and equipment for packing fruit samples. In photographing hawthorn fruits, the natural color of the fruits must be completely preserved, and after several tests on evaluating the exposure system for photographing the fruits, the best result is with a special system with exposure from below and imaging from above in JPG format. In order to compare the appearance of fruit size, shape and color, three parts were photographed, including the lateral part of fruit, the blossom and the junction of the fruit tail in all nine hundred fruits from sixty different populations. The digital color analysis computer software called Image pro plus has converted the color of the selected fruit samples into numerical data using the RGB model, and the numerical data has been extracted which contains the numerical average of the colors red with the symbol (R), green with the symbol (G) ) and blue with symbol (B) were transferred to EXCEL software and then these data related to each fruit were normalized by the following formulas under EXCEL software, which in the formulas of normalized numbers, the numerical mean of red color with symbol ( r), the normalized numbers of the numerical mean of the green color were shown with the symbol (g) and the normalized numbers of the numerical mean of the blue color were shown with the symbol (b).
r = R / (R + G + B)
g = G / (R + G + B)
b = B / (R + G + B)
Then, by six formulas, the following six numerical indices of each fruit related to red, green and blue colors were calculated under EXCEL software.
I1 = I GREEN = g-r / g + r The first green indicator
I2 = I RED = r-g / r + g The first red indicator
I3 = I BLUE = b-r / b + r The first blue indicator
I4 = I RED = r-b / r + b The second red indicator
I5 = I GREEN = g-b / g + b The second green indicator
I6 = I BLUE = b-g / b + g The second indicator is blue
The CMY model stands for three colors: cyan, magenta and yellow. Finally, by CMY method and with the following three formulas, three numerical indices of each fruit, which were related to yellow color index, turquoise color index and magenta color index, were calculated and extracted under EXCEL software and then statistically analyzed by SPSS statistical software.
I yellow = r + g / r + g + b Yellow indicator
I Cyan = r + g / r + g + b Turquoise color index
I Magenta = r + g / r + g + b Magenta color index
.This research shows that by investigating the phototypic diversity of hawthorn plant in Sahand protected area using the method of evaluating the appearance of fruit color and also the complementary evaluation of fruit color with two digital colorimetry models RGB and CMY in hawthorn and comparing the results of these two methods to the results Reliability was achieved in the field of investigating phenotypic diversity in hawthorn plant. Phenotypic diversity with digital colorimetry can be a suitable alternative in comparison with the method of molecular markers with low cost and time saving. From the indices L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, Ly, Lcy, Lmag calculated with nine formulas in the research method section and then analyzed by SPSS software in the nine tables of the results section, it can be concluded that for evaluating The center of diversity, the origin and the genetic reserve of a plant in a region, RGB and CMY digital colorimetry models can be a suitable substitute for the molecular markers method.