نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت ، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.
2 کمیته تحقیقات دانشجویی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز
3 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز
4 دانشجوی کارشناسی مهندسی بهداشت محیط ، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز
عنوان مقاله [English]
Housing health is one of the most significant factors in improving the quality of life in human societies. Achieving development and progress is possible by paying attention to the health of society people. Therefore, the observance of healthy principles in all aspects of life, including housing, must be considered. This study aimed to investigate the housing health status in rural areas of Bonab County.
In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the target population was all 29 villages of Bonab County with 14532 households and 47596 people. From this target population, 14 villages with 10322 households and a population of 34197 people chose as a statistical population through systematic random sampling. Data was collected using interviewing, observing, measuring, and completing the standard checklist of environmental and occupational health status. Finally, the collected data were statistically analyzed using version 22 of SPSS software. The results showed that 95.9% of rural dwellings had more than 70 m2, and the area of residential rooms was appropriate to the user population in more than 95% of households. 49.92% of the buildings were made with substandard materials (sun-dried brick 3%, block 27%, and wood 19%). 100% of residents had access to safe drinking water. 100% of residents collected and disposed of domestic wastewater, and solid waste, in a sanitary manner. Also, 100% of livestock households collected and disposed of their animal waste in a sanitary manner. More than 90% of rural households were in good condition and hygienic in terms of various parameters of residential rooms (floor, wall, ceiling, and light). 100% of rural families using natural gas as fuel. The statues of the bathroom and kitchen were healthy in 93.92% and 88% of households, respectively. However, 6.08% of households did not have a kitchen and 1.46% did not have a bathroom inside the house. In general, although most of the housing health indicators in the studied villages were in a good and acceptable condition, but the buildings are not in a good and acceptable condition in terms of the type of building materials and safety and strength.
Housing and the made environment play a major role in shaping human health. Historically, inadequate housing has fueled the spread of disease, affected individuals' physical and mental health, and enhancement mortality. The provision of adequate housing could lead to incremented human well-being and subsequently lower health care costs. Addressing this subject is important, given that more than 70% of an individual's time is typically spent housings. The concept of housing as a public health subject is not new. In the middle of the 19th century, pathologist Rudolf Virchow advised city leaders that poorly maintained, crowded housing was related with higher rates of infectious disease transmission. Engels, in his research of the labor group in England, reported that “There is ample evidence that the dwellings of the labors who live in the in poor areas, along with other adverse factors, cause many diseases.” Improving the quality of housing health sanitation were significant ingredients of 19th- and early-20th-century to control typhus, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases.
Housing can expose people to a number of health risks. Housing that is difficult or expensive to heat contributes to poor respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes, while high indoor temperatures can cause heat-related illnesses and increase cardiovascular mortality. Indoor air pollution is associated with a wide range of consequences of non-communicable diseases that can lead to damage to respiratory and cardiovascular health and may trigger allergic and irritating reactions such as asthma. Crowded housing increases the risk of exposure to infectious diseases. Inadequate water supply and sanitation facilities affect food safety and personal hygiene, and therefore lead to the development of communicable diseases.
Poor housing statues are related with a wide range of health statues, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Public health has long been involved in housing subject. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to decrease infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to reduce injuries.
Housing is an important determinant of health, and substandard housing is a main public health issue. Every year in the United States, 13.5 million nonfatal injuries happen in and around the house, 2900 people die in home fires, and 2 million people go to the emergency room for asthma. One million young children in the United States have blood lead values high enough to adversely affect their intelligence, behavior, and development. Two million Americans have homes with severe physical problems, and another 4.8 million have homes with medium problems. Improved housing statues can save lives, prevent disease, improve the quality of life, decrease poverty, and help mitigate climate change. Housing is becoming significantly important to health in light of urban growth, aging populations, and climate change.
This study aimed to investigate the health status of rural housing in Bonab County in terms of the type of building, residential rooms, yard, type of fuel consumed, drinking water, bathroom, kitchen, bathroom, collection and disposal of wastewater, solid waste, and animal waste was done. The method of control and evaluation of data in this research is based on field visits and observations.
The present study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The target population of this study is all 29 inhabited villages of Bonab Count with 14532 households and 47596 people. From this target population, 14 villages with more than 400 households with 10322 households and a population of 34197 people were selected as the statistical population. In this study, the sample size was estimated using Cochran's formula with 95% confidence and a 5% error rate at 370 households. Therefore, 411 households from the study population (approximately 10% more than the sample size estimated by the formula) were selected as the sample size. Data collection tools included observation, interview, measurement and completion of the form (housing status in terms of environmental and occupational health) on the last page of the rural household file to assess the current state of housing health in rural areas of Bonab County. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software version 22 and the data were described using descriptive statistics such as mean and percentage.
The results show that 95.9% of rural houses had more than 70 m2 of infrastructure. In more than 95% of households, the area of residential rooms was appropriate for the population. 49.92% of the buildings were made of substandard materials (sun-dried brick. 3.17%, block 27% and wood 18.98%). 100% of rural households had access to safe drinking water at home through a private branch. 100% of rural households collected and disposed of solid waste and wastewater in a hygienic way. Also, 100% of rural households with livestock disposed of animal waste in a hygienic way. More than 90% of rural households were in good health status in terms of various parameters of residential rooms (floor, wall, ceiling, light). 100% of households using natural gas as fuel. 93.92% of households have a sanitation bathroom inside the home. 88.08% of households have a hygienic kitchen inside the home. However, 6.08% of households did not have a kitchen and 1.46% did not have a bathroom inside the home. In general, most of the housing hygiene indicators in the studied villages were appropriate and acceptable. However, the most important health priorities and educational needs in relation to housing hygiene were the buildings made of substandard materials. Therefore, the performance of rural health workers and relevant authorities should be focused on improving the safety and strength of buildings and maintaining the existing conditions of other indicators of housing health.