عنوان مقاله [English]
Road transportation uses notable amounts of fossil fuels and accounts for a remarkable share of CO2 emissions and other pollutants worldwide. The transportation sector uses nearly 20% to 25 of global energy and is responsible for approximately 25% of global energy-related CO2 emissions, 75% of which is disseminated via road transport. Eco-driving is one of the 40 measures that should contribute to a 60% reduction in emissions of traffic-related pollutants by 2050. Eco-driving technology can be considered as a set of choices and behaviors adopted by drivers in order to energy-saving and environmental protection. This approach is a relatively inexpensive and immediate measure to dramatically reduce fuel consumption and emissions of pollutants. The finding of researches in this field indicate that although the efficiency of car engines has been developed due to recent technological advances and the integration of new types of fuels, but the behavior of drivers has not improved in line with this development. Thus, it is expected to with proper training and information of drivers, this procedure leads to further reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The main factors affecting eco-driving include acceleration/deceleration, driving speed, route select and idling. The present research is a study review in which data were obtained through library studies. The purpose of this study is to review and compare the major factors influencing the implementation of eco-driving technology. Finally, the challenges and future research for eco-driving technology are proposed. Therefore, due to the high price of fuel and the concern of conserving natural resources and energy, eco-driving technology is one of the best and most rational approaches for sustainable development, energy conservation and environmental protection.
Road transportation uses notable amounts of fossil fuels and accounts for a remarkable share of CO2 emissions and other pollutants worldwide. Overall, the transportation sector is responsible for generation the maximum amount of greenhouse gases, which is estimated to be approximately 30% of the man-made emissions, has increased by 22% since 1990. The transportation sector uses nearly 20% to 25 of global energy and is responsible for approximately 25% of global energy-related CO2 emissions, 75% of which is disseminated via road transport. Furthermore, energy usage and CO2 emissions from global transport are estimated to increment by more than 50% in 2030 because of population development and economic growth. The levels of pollutants emissions are related to fuel consumption efficiency. Hence, it is necessary to study the fuel consumption of the transportation sector, especially road transport, as well as approaches to reduce fuel consumption. In recently years, many measures have been taken to optimize fuel consumption and reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases in the transportation sector. These measures include: Implement stricter standards regarding the emission of pollutants from the vehicle (Euro V and VI), new engines and technologies (electric and hybrid), better fuel quality and alternative fuels (high-octane and biofuel).
However, a momentous factor which is often ignored and may significantly improve vehicle fuel consumption is eco-driving technology, while, eco-driving technology is relatively inexpensive and immediate, and can further improve fuel efficiency. Recent research has shown that eco-driving can reduce fuel consumption by 15% to 25% and greenhouse gas emissions by at least 30%. In contrast, total fuel savings from engines and vehicles with the latest technology are estimated at around 10% to 12%, which is significantly lower. Moreover, eco-driving is more cost-effective than fleet resilience programs, such as replacing existing diesel buses with new compressed natural gas buses. Eco-driving is a driving behavior (driving style (that helps the environment and counteracting climate change through decreasing fuel usage and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). In general, this technology involves adjusting the speed of the vehicle in relation to traffic conditions and selecting routes to minimize fuel consumption. Therefore, eco-driving can be considered as a set of choices and behaviors adopted by drivers in relation to the use of a vehicle, which leads to fuel consumption savings. Increasing study interest on eco-driving indicates that despite, the efficiency of vehicles’ motors has improved because of recent technological achievements and integration of new fuel types, but drivers have not improved their behavior accordingly. Thus, it is expected to with proper training and information of drivers, this procedure leads to further reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
The purpose of this study is to review and analyses the published studies on eco-driving technology and Role of this technology in reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This review specifically includes the concepts, objectives, principles, criteria and rules of eco-driving and, finally, the challenges and direction of future research on eco-driving. Eco-driving include a number of factors and has different definitions or scope in the literature. Eco-driving defined as decisions that a driver could make to influence the fuel economy of light-duty vehicles, ranging from vehicle purchase to post-purchase decisions. These decisions can be classified into three classes: strategic decisions (vehicle selection and maintenance), tactical decisions (route and weight planning), and operational decisions (driving style). In this study, eco-driving is limited to the driving behaviors or driver control of the vehicle during the journey that can affect fuel consumption and pollutants emissions. These factors involve driving speed, acceleration, deceleration, route choice, idling and vehicle accessories (other factors). This is because these factors are the most common and useful eco-driving skills that any driver can use every day in practice instead of buying a new fuel-efficient car. Furthermore, changes in these driving behaviors can lead to a significant reduction in fuel consumption and emissions compared to other behaviors such as better maintenance practices.
Eco-driving technology has been studied based on many scientific articles. Eco-driving has been found to be a relatively inexpensive and immediate measure to significantly reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The main factors influencing the amount of fuel consumption and pollutants emissions that the driver has control over during driving include acceleration/deceleration, driving speed, route selection and idling. Training programs and in-vehicle feedback equipment are commonly applied to implement eco-driving skills. An immediate and considerable reductions in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions have been observed, with a slight increase in the travel time. Eco-driving can be one of our cheapest options to achieve the Kyoto Protocol, improve air quality and stabilizing CO2 concentrations below a doubling of preindustrial concentrations. Road transport is still the largest source of energy consumption and air pollution in urban areas. Thus, further studies on the impact of eco-driving on greenhouse gas emissions and conservation of energy and the environment are needed in the future. Quantification of the effect of eco-driving on fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gas and other pollutants, now and in the future, is essential to design an effective program in terms of both costs and effects. The impact of eco-driving on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions at the network level must also be considered.