عنوان مقاله [English]
The main challenge to global sustainable development is environmental degradation due to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The ecological footprint index is widely used to measure environmental degradation and represents environmental sustainability. The Ecological Footprint Index is an indicator of environmental sustainability and is the most appropriate indicator for assessing sustainable development - in the sense of meeting current needs without reducing environmental capacity - for future generations in a region. Given the importance of political and economic globalization and its impact on environmental quality, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between economic and political globalization with the index of environmental degradation in Iran. The innovation of this study compared to previous studies is prominent in two dimensions. First, in most studies, the emission of one types of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, is considered as an indicator of environmental degradation, and this shows a small part of the degradation. Therefore, the use of ecological footprint as a measure of environmental degradation is the present study innovation.
KOF is a comprehensive index of globalization that includes three very important economic, social and political aspects. The economic aspect of globalization index includes trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and foreign investment in stocks (FPI) - buying bonds and stocks of companies in stock exchange transactions and deposit bills in foreign banks - Barriers to trade, such as restrictions and tariffs, include barriers to covert imports, tariffs, international trade taxes, and capital controls on real flows. Therefore, this index, by increasing the volume and variety of exchanges of goods, services and capital flows, etc., has a high power in explaining and reflecting the growth of economic interdependence of countries. Political globalization includes the diversification of embassies in the country, membership in international organizations, ratification of international treaties, as well as participation in UN Security Council missions. Social globalization includes variables that affect personal audiences such as telephone traffic and international tourism, information streams such as the Internet, newspapers, etc.. Importantly, in addition to economic globalization, the index also includes social and political globalization. Therefore, this index is more comprehensive than other indicators used in previous studies. To calculate the KOF index, each of the variables - the variables of economic, social and political globalization - is converted to a number in the range of 1 to 100. The number 100 indicates the highest value and the number 1 indicates the lowest value. The data is converted to percentages of the original distribution, then weights are selected for each subgroup. These weights are calculated for all countries and all years using principal component analysis. Finally, the general index, which is a composite index, is obtained from the weighted sum of these sub-indices. In order to investigate the asymmetric effects of economic globalization on the ecological footprint, the non-linear extended nonlinear regression (NARDL) approach was used. The extended NARDL is the extended-interrupt self-regression (ARDL) method, with the advantage that the asymmetric effects of the independent variables, that is, the effect of positive and negative changes of the explanatory variables in the short and long run, can not be examined separately. In this regard, ecological footprint, GDP per capita at constant price in year 2010, foreign direct investment, fossil fuel consumption, the effect of economic globalization and the political globalization are considered as explanatory variables. In order to examine the effect of economic globalization and the effect of political globalization, these variables include positive and negative effects. In this study, the data are time series (1995-219) and these data are from three sources: Global Footprint Network to extract ecological footprint data, http://globalization.kof.ethz to extract KOF data and other required data were collected from the World Bank.
In this study, the asymmetric effects of economic and political globalization on the ecological footprint for Iran were investigated in long-run and short-run. The results showed that the negative relationship between ecological footprint and political globalization confirms the hypothesis of global environmental management and shows that political globalization reduces human environmental demand. Based on the results of the research, suggestions are presented as follows.
Given the direct relationship between ecological footprint and energy consumption, through policies including increased investment in energy saving, energy efficiency projects and investments in Increasing the role of renewable and clean energy sources can reduce energy consumption and consequently the ecological footprint. Therefore, reducing energy subsidies and imposing environmental taxes on illicit uses can be an effective step towards reducing the ecological footprint and increasing the ecological capacity to protect the interests of the future. Given the focus of the ecological footprint on how much people should reduce consumption, increase technology, and improve their behavior to achieve sustainability, adopting environmental protection policies to control and reduce the ecological footprint is essential. In this regard, awareness is needed to reduce the extreme use of ecosystems and the use of efficient technology and control of industrial pollution.
The results of the long-run relationship showed that the negative shocks of economic globalization in the long run increase the ecological footprint, so it is suggested that the increase in trade liberalization to emphasize the management of its negative effects on the country's environmental capacity as a principle. Therefore, it is necessary for the government to develop business measures and strategies in order to increase environmental protection. The development of trade with a focus on environmental protection can be a useful step in improving the ecological orientation of the country. Therefore, it is recommended that goods that produce more pollutants domestically be imported from abroad. In this case, economic globalization can be a useful step in improving the technology of production and improving the quality of the environment.
On the other hand, the negative effect of political globalization on the ecological footprint index confirms the hypothesis of global management of environment and shows that political globalization reduces the demand for environment. Therefore, reducing political instability and conflicts in the region is essential to reduce environmental degradation. Political instability and conflict not only weaken economic performance, but also shorten the horizons of economic policymakers, thereby weakening macroeconomic performance and environmental regulation.